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LexisNexis Practice Guide: Pennsylvania DUI Law

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Print Book :1 Volume, Softbound, Updated Annually
2017 Edition
ISBN: 9781522139393
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2017 Edition
ISBN: 9781522139409
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2017 Edition
ISBN: 9781522139409
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This publication was authored by a prominent defense attorney and former prosecutor. These two individuals bring a wealth of experience and practical expertise from both the prosecution and defense side of the practice to the issues addressed in the book. This publication is intended to be a comprehensive practice guide for attorneys handling DUI cases in Pennsylvania. The book is designed for both prosecutor and defense attorneys who practice criminal law, with a specific focus on DUI cases, in Pennsylvania.

•  Practice pointers that suggest ways to improve results for your clients

•  A comprehensive Table of Contents that helps practitioners to spot issues

•  Annual updates will be available to keep the publication current

•  An authoritative guide and index to look up unfamiliar issues.

•  References to applicable statutes and caselaw

Authors / Contributors

Table of Contents

Chapter One – Elements of DUI



1.01
The Elements of DUI – Controlling Law

1.02 Drive, Operate, Actual Physical Control

1.03 Vehicle

1.04 Highway or Trafficway

1.05 General Impairment

1.05[1] General Impairment – Alcohol

1.05[2] General Impairment – Drugs

1.05[3] General Impairment – Prescription Drugs

1.05[4] General Impairment – Non-prescription Drugs

1.05[5] General Impairment – Alcohol and Drugs

1.05[6] General Impairment – Inhalants

1.06 Per Se Violations

1.06[1] Per Se Violations – Alcohol

1.06[1][a] Breath Testing

1.06[1][b] Blood Testing

1.06[2] The "Two Hour Rule" and Exceptions

1.06[3] Per Se Violations – Controlled Substances

1.07 Underage DUI

1.08 School and Commercial Vehicles



Chapter Two – Grading



2.01
Grading of DUI Charges – Controlling Law

2.01[1] General Considerations

2.02 Prior Offenses

2.02[1] Prior Offenses – Ten Year "Look Back"

2.02[2] Prior Offenses – Effective Dates – ARD Revocation

2.02[3] Prior Offenses – Out of State Offenses

2.03 Specific Grading Provisions

2.03[1] General Impairment – Alcohol

2.03[2] General Impairment – Alcohol – Accident

2.03[3] High Rate of Alcohol – Results Between .10 and .159%

2.03[4] Highest Rate of Alcohol – .16% and Above – Drugs

2.03[5] Minors and Commercial or School Vehicles

2.03[6] Refusal to Submit to Testing



Chapter Three – DUI-Related Charges



3.01
Other Related Offenses – Controlling Law

3.02 DUS/DUI

3.02[1] 1543(b) – DUS/DUI – General Considerations

3.02[2] DUS/DUI – County Intermediate Punishment (CIP)

3.02[3] DUS/DUI – Evidentiary Issues – Generally

3.02[4] DUS/DUI – Actual Notice of Suspension

3.02[5] DUS/DUI – Effective Date of DUI Suspension – Multiple Suspensions

3.03 DUS/DUI After Consuming Alcohol or Drugs

3.03[1] 1543(b)(1.1) – DUS/DUI After Consuming Alcohol or Drugs – General Considerations

3.03[2] DUS/DUI After Consuming Alcohol or Drugs – Alcohol Consumption – Proof

3.03[3] DUS/DUI After Consuming Alcohol or Drugs – Drug Consumption – Proof

3.03[4] DUS/DUI After Consuming Alcohol or Drugs – Test Refusal – Proof

3.03[5] DUS/DUI After Consuming Alcohol or Drugs – Grading and Penalties

3.04 Boating Under the Influence

3.04[1] Boating Under the Influence – General Considerations

3.04[2] Alcohol Boating Under the Influence

3.04[2][a] Alcohol Boating Under the Influence – General Impairment


3.04[2][b] Alcohol Boating Under the Influence – Per Se Offenses

3.04[2][c] Drug Boating Under the Influence – General Impairment

3.04[2][d] Drug Boating Under the Influence – Per Se Offenses

3.04[2][e] Boating Under the Influence General Impairment – Alcohol and Drugs

3.04[2][f] Boating Under the Influence General Impairment – Inhalants

3.04[2][g] Boating Under the Influence Grading, Penalties, Disposition

3.05 Flying While Impaired

3.05[1] Flying While Impaired – General Considerations

3.05[1][a] Crew Liability

3.05[2] Chemical Testing

3.05[2][a] Chemical Testing – Pre-arrest

3.05[2][b] Chemical Testing – Post-arrest

3.05[3] Flying While Impaired – Penalties

3.06 Specific Violations

3.06[1] Ignition Interlock Violations – General Considerations

3.06[2] Specific Violations

3.06[2][a] Specific Violations – Driving Without Interlock

3.06[2][b Specific Violations – Driving Without Interlock – Alcohol or Drugs

3.06[2][c] Specific Violations – Tampering with Interlock System

3.06[3] License Suspension for Violations Committed During Interlock Restriction

3.07 Occupational Limited License

3.07[1] Occupational Limited License (OLL) Violations – General Considerations

3.07[2] OLL Violations – Penalties



Chapter Four – Arrest Issues



4.01
Arrest Issues – Controlling Law

4.01[1] Arrest Issues – General Considerations

4.02 Arrest Issues – Initial Contact

4.02[1] Initial Contact – Mere Encounters

4.02[2] Initial Contact – Checkpoints – Constitutional Issues

4.02[2][a] "Safety" or Equipment Checkpoints

4.02[2][b] Practical Issues and Challenges – Generally

4.02[2][c] "Brief but Trained Observation of a Vehicle's Driver"

4.02[2][d] "Made Knowable in Advance"

4.02[2][e] "Route…Likely to be Travelled by Intoxicated Drivers"

4.02[2][f] Staffing Issues

4.02[2][g] Checkpoint Avoidance

4.02[3] Initial Contact – Reasonable Suspicion Traffic Stops

4.02[4] Initial Contact – Probable Cause Traffic Stops

4.03 Accidents

4.03[1] Accidents – General Considerations

4.03[2] Accidents – Probable Cause – Driving/Operation/Actual Physical Control

4.03[3] Accidents – Probable Cause – Impairment

4.04 Arrest Powers and Jurisdiction

4.04[1] Arrest Powers and Jurisdiction – General Considerations

4.04[1][a] Arrest Powers and Jurisdiction – Sheriffs and Their Deputies

4.04[2] Arrest Powers and Jurisdiction – Municipal Police Jurisdiction Act (MPJA)

4.04[2][a] MPJA – Hot and Fresh Pursuit – Probable Cause

4.04[2][b] MPJA – Requests for Extraterritorial Assistance

4.04[2][c] MPJA – Prior Consent

4.04[2][d] MPJA – Officers on Official Business Outside Their Jurisdiction

4.05 Pre-Arrest Testing – Overview

4.05[1] Pre – Arrest Testing – Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

4.05[1][a] Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus Test

4.05[1][b] Walk and Turn/One Leg Stand

4.05[1][c] Pre-Arrest Breath Test – PBT

4.05[1][d] DRE Evaluation



Chapter Five – Evidentiary Issues



5.01
Evidentiary Issues – Controlling Law

5.02 Post Arrest Chemical Testing – Breath Testing – General Considerations

5.02[1] Breath Testing – Approved Devices

5.02[2] Breath Testing - Procedures

5.02[2][a] Breath Testing – Procedures – 20 Minute Observation

5.02[2][b] Breath Testing – Procedures – Test Requirements

5.02[2][c] Breath Testing – Procedures – Inadequate Samples

5.02[2][d] Breath Testing – Procedures – Accuracy Inspections and Calibration

5.02[2][d][1] Accuracy Inspections and Calibration – Confrontation

5.02[2][e] Breath Testing – Procedures – Simulator Solution/Ampoules

5.02[2][f] Breath Testing – Procedures – Qualified Person[s]

5.03 Post Arrest Chemical Testing – Alcohol Blood Testing – General Considerations

5.03[1] Blood Testing – Alcohol – "Whole Blood"

5.03[1][a] Blood Testing – Alcohol – Serum/Plasma Conversion

5.03[1][b] Blood Testing – Alcohol – Supernatant Conversion

5.03[1][c] Blood Testing – Alcohol – Margin of Error/Uncertainty

5.03[1][d] Blood Testing – Alcohol – Confrontation

5.03[1][e] Blood Testing – Alcohol – Chain of Custody

5.04 Post Arrest Chemical Testing – Blood Testing for Drugs – General Considerations

5.04[1] Blood Testing for Drugs – General Principles of Toxicology

5.04[2] Blood Testing for Drugs – Screening/Confirmation

5.04[3] Blood Testing for Drugs – Serum/Plasma

5.04[4] Blood Testing for Drugs – Minimum Levels

5.04[5] Blood Testing for Drugs – Synthetic or "Designer" Drugs

5.05 Post Arrest Chemical Testing – Urine – General Considerations

5.05[1] Urine Testing – Screening/Confirmation

5.05[2] Urine Testing – Limitations of Confirmatory Results

5.06 Post Arrest Chemical Testing – Independent Testing – Requesting Alternative Tests

5.06[1] Independent Testing – Independent Analysis

5.07 Search Warrants for Hospital/Medical Records – Medical Blood Draws

5.07[1] Search Warrants for Hospital/Medical Records – Independent Source

5.08 Admissions – Miranda – General Principles

5.08[1] Admissions – Miranda – Traffic Stops

5.08[2] Admissions – Miranda – Accidents



Chapter Six – Implied Consent/Refusals



6.01
Implied Consent/Refusals – Controlling Law

6.01[1] Implied Consent/Refusals – General Considerations

6.02 Implied Consent/Refusal – Constitutional Law

6.02[1] Implied Consent/Refusals – Constitutional Principles Pre-McNeely

6.02[2] Implied Consent/Refusals – Constitutional Principles – Missouri v. McNeely

6.03 Implied Consent/Refusals – Statutory Provisions

6.03[1] Implied Consent/Refusals – Statutory Provisions – Section 1547

6.03[2] Implied Consent/Refusals – Statutory Provisions – Section 3755

6.04 Implied Consent/Refusals – Actual Consent

6.05 Implied Consent/Refusals – License Suspension Appeals – General Considerations

6.05[1] License Suspension Appeals – Arrest

6.05[1][a] License Suspension Appeals – Reasonable Grounds

6.05[2] License Suspension Appeals – Refusal Defined

6.05[2][a] Refusal Defined – Failure to Sign Forms

6.05[2][b] Refusal Defined – Questions Causing Delay

6.05[2][c] Refusal Defined – Silence or Ambiguous Response

6.05[2][d] Refusal Defined – Breath Testing Irregularities

6.05[2][e] Refusal Defined – Request for Alternate Test

6.05[3] License Suspension Appeals – Police Warnings

6.05[4] License Suspension Appeals – Driver's Burden – General Considerations

6.05[4][a] Driver's Burden – Physical Incapacity

6.05[4][b] Driver's Burden – Unknowing or Otherwise Incompetent



Chapter Seven – Discovery and Pre-Trial Motions – Sample Forms



Chapter Eight – Accelerated Rehabilitative Disposition (ARD)



8.01
ARD – Controlling Law

8.01[1] ARD – General Considerations

8.02 ARD Eligibility

8.02[1] ARD – Statutory Eligibility

8.02[2] ARD – Prosecutorial Discretion – Eligibility

8.03 ARD – Other Considerations

8.03[1] ARD – Application Requirements – Statutory

8.03[2] ARD – Program Conditions – Statutory

8.03[3] ARD – Program Conditions – Court-imposed

8.04 ARD – License Suspension

8.05 ARD – Dismissal and Expungement

8.05[1] ARD – Dismissal and Expungement – Court Records

8.05[2] ARD – Expungement – PennDOT Records



Chapter Nine – Trial Checklist



Chapter Ten – Witnesses



10.01
Witnesses – Controlling Law

10.02 Prosecution Witnesses

10.02[1] Prosecution Witnesses – General Considerations

10.02[2] Prosecution Witnesses – Lay Opinion – Alcohol Impairment

10.02[3] Prosecution Witnesses – Lay Opinion – Drug Impairment

10.02[3][a] Lay Opinion – Drug Impairment – ARIDE

10.03 Prosecution Witnesses – DRE – General Considerations and Background

10.03[1] DRE – Lay Opinion Testimony
10.03[2] DRE – Expert Testimony – Practical Considerations

10.03[3] DRE – The Evaluation Process

10.04 Prosecution Witnesses – Expert Testimony – Drug Toxicology



Chapter Eleven – Sentencing



11.01
Sentencing Issues – Controlling Law

11.02 Sentencing Issues – Other Considerations

11.02[1] Sentencing Issues – Tiers and Grading

11.02[2] Sentencing Issues – Court Reporting Network (CRN) Evaluation

11.02[3] Sentencing Issues – Drug and Alcohol Assessment

11.03 Sentencing Issues – Other Offenses

11.03[1] Sentencing Issues – Tier One Offenses

11.03[1][a] Sentencing Issues – Tier One Offenses – Alcohol Only

11.03[1][b] Sentencing Issues – Tier Two Offenses – Alcohol Only

11.03[1][c] Sentencing Issues – Tier Three Offenses – Refusals – Alcohol/Drugs

11.03[1][d] Sentencing Issues – (M1) Child in Car Enhancement

11.03[1][e] Sentencing Issues – Restitution

11.04 Additional Requirements

11.04[1] Additional Requirements – Alcohol Highway Safety School (AHSS)

11.04[2] Additional Requirements – License Suspension

11.04[3] Additional Requirements – Ignition Interlock

11.04[3][a] Ignition Interlock – Economic Hardship Exemption

11.04[3][b] Ignition Interlock – Employment Exemption

11.05 Other Sentencing Issues

11.05[1] Other Sentencing Issues – Place of Confinement – Discretionary

11.05[2] Other Sentencing Issues – Credit for Time Served – Drug and Alcohol Treatment

11.05[3] Other Sentencing Issues – Credit for Time Served – Pre-Trial Monitoring

11.05[4] Other Sentencing Issues – County Intermediate Punishment (CIP)

11.05[5] Other Sentencing Issues – Pa. Sentencing Guidelines

11.05[6] Other Sentencing Issues – Flat Sentences

11.05[7] Other Sentencing Issues – State Sentences

11.05[7][a] Other Sentencing Issues – State Sentences – RRRI

11.05[7][b] Other Sentencing Issues – State Sentences – State Intermediate Punishment