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Privacy Law and the USA PATRIOT Act

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National Security and Privacy Law After 9/11 – Can you protect your clients’ privacy from invasion by post-9/11 surveillance?

The vital issues at the intersection of national security and privacy law in the post-9/11 era are explored in this publication. With initial focus on the USA PATRIOT Act and tracking subsequent national security enactments, amendments, regulations, case law, and administrative actions that affect privacy, the publication provides timely analysis of privacy rights today and limitations on and threats to those rights.

Since the swift enactment of the USA PATRIOT Act in the aftermath of the 9/11 attack, provisions of the Act have encountered constitutional problems, raising continuing concerns about the Act’s impact on privacy. Formally named the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act, the surveillance and database tracking tools authorized under the Act have broad-reaching ramifications on individuals, businesses, and charities. Privacy Law and the USA PATRIOT Act was the first major treatise on the Act and continues to provide up-to-date analysis that emphasizes the practical implications, burdens and options for organizations and individuals cooperating with and subject to continually-evolving government reporting requirements, information requests, and surveillance. Topics analyzed include:

  • The PATRIOT Act's Privacy Law Context and Its Relation to the United States Code and Code of Federal Regulations
  • Wiretapping and Electronic Surveillance (Including the National Security Agency's Domestic Electronic Surveillance Program)
  • The Relationship Among Title III Surveillance Orders, FISA Orders, National Security Letters, and Other Surveillance Authorities
  • Watch Lists and Other Federal Databases on Individuals
  • DNA Identification and Other Biometrics
  • Bank Secrecy Act-Expanded Reporting, Inquiry and Sanction Powers
  • Compliance Burdens and Liabilities for Non-Financial and Not-Traditionally-Financial Organizations (Including Charities)
  • The Broken-Down "Wall:" Information Sharing Across and Beyond the Federal Government
  • Tracking/Detaining/Removing Aliens and Other Border Protection Measures
  • Asset Freezing, Seizure and Forfeiture
  • New Terrorism Crimes
  • Authors / Contributors

    Table of Contents

    Chapter 1 Introduction 
    1.01 Purpose of This Treatise
    1.02 Legislative History
    1.03 The March 2006 PATRIOT Act Amendments
    1.04 Legal Areas Affected
    1.05 How the Act Is Organized
    1.06 Where the Action Is: How the Government Implements the PATRIOT Act

    Chapter 2 The Development and Scope of the Right of Privacy
    2.01 The Privacy Law Context of the PATRIOT Act
    2.02 The Sources of Privacy Law
    2.03 The Scope of the Right to Privacy; the Status of Privacy as a Right; Standards of Review
    2.04 Scope of Privacy—Fourth Amendment
    2.05 Fifth Amendment
    2.06 Sixth Amendment
    2.07 Electronic Surveillance—Introduction
    2.08 Fourth Amendment as Applied to Electronic Surveillance
    2.09 Electronic Communications Privacy Act Amendments to the Wiretap Act
    2.10 Stored Communications Act
    2.11 Electronic Communications
    2.12 Predicate Offenses for Interception of Communications Under Title III
    2.13 The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
    2.14 Legality v. Practicality of Electronic Surveillance
    2.15 Administrative Subpoenas
    2.16 Court Procedure and Evidence: Discovery, Privilege, and Nondisclosure
    2.17 Government Agency Privacy Rules
    2.18 Immigration Law and Privacy
    2.19 Freedom of Information Act
    2.20 Privacy of Court Proceedings and Related Government Records
    2.21 Education
    2.22 Media Disclosure Cases
    2.23 Voter Privacy
    2.24 Financial Privacy
    2.25 Identity Theft
    2.26 Commercial Access to Individual Financial Information
    2.27 Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Modernization Act of 1999
    2.28 Financial Disclosure by Government Employees
    2.29 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
    2.30 Freedom of Association: Membership and Support
    2.31 Sexual Acts and Sexual Orientation
    2.32 Reproductive Rights
    2.33 Medical Records and Treatment
    2.34 Employees in the Workplace
    2.35 Consumer Privacy
    2.36 Data Mining
    2.37 Biometrics
    2.38 Event Data Recorders in Automobiles
    2.39 Licenses
    2.40 State Statutes
    2.41 Common Law
    2.42 Standards of Review in Privacy Cases
    2.43 A Suggested Definition of Privacy
    2.44 A Suggested Definition of Government Surveillance
    2.45 A Suggested Privacy Checklist
    2.46 Risk Factors for Government Surveillance

    Chapter 3 President’s Powers Regarding Property and Terrorism Designations
    3.01 Section 106—Presidential Authority
    3.02 Executive Order 13,224 and Terrorist Designations
    3.03 Executive Order 13,324—Constitutional Limitations
    3.04 Executive Order 13,324—Impact

    Chapter 4 Surveillance 4.01 Introduction to Title II—Enhanced Surveillance Procedures
    4.02 Introduction to Provisions of Title II
    4.03 Section 201—Authority to Intercept Wire, Oral, and Electronic Communications Relating to Terrorism, 18 U.S.C. § 2516
    4.04 Section 202—Authority to Intercept Communications Relating to Computer Fraud and Abuse, 18 U.S.C. §2516
    4.05 Section 203—Authority to Share Criminal Investigative Information, Fed. R. Crim. P. 6, 18 U.S.C. § 2517
    4.06 Section 203—Grand Jury Information
    4.07 Section 203—Sharing Information from Electronic, Wire, and Oral Interceptions
    4.08 Section 203—Guidelines and Procedures for Sharing and Disclosing Information
    4.09 Section 203—Foreign Intelligence Information
    4.10 Section 203—Implications for Practitioners of PATRIOT Act: Criminal/Intelligence Information-Sharing Guidelines
    4.11 Section 204—Clarification of Intelligence Exceptions, 18 U.S.C. § 2511
    4.12 Section 206—Roving Surveillance Authority, 50 U.S.C. § 1805
    4.13 Section 207—Duration of FISA Surveillance of Agents of a Foreign Power, 50 U.S.C. §§ 1805(e), 1824(d)
    4.14 Section 209—Seizure of Voice-Mail Messages Pursuant to Warrants, 18 U.S.C. §§ 2510, 2703
    4.15 Section 210—Scope of Subpoenas for Records of Electronic Communications, 18 U.S.C. § 2703
    4.16 Section 211—Clarification of Scope (Subpoena of Cable Records), 47 U.S.C. § 551
    4.17 Section 212—Emergency Disclosure of Electronic Communications to Protect Life and Limb, 18 U.S.C. §§ 2702, 2703
    4.18 Section 213—Authority for Delaying Notice of the Execution of a Warrant, 18 U.S.C. § 3103a
    4.19 Section 214—Pen Register and Trap and Trace Authority Under FISA, 50 U.S.C. §§ 1842, 1843
    4.20 Section 215—Access to Records and Other Items Under FISA, 50 U.S.C. §§ 1861, 1862
    4.21 Section 215 Precursor—The FBI’s Library Awareness Program
    4.22 Section 215—Justice Department Position
    4.23 Section 215—Civil Libertarian Responses to the Justice Department’s Position
    4.24 Section 215—The Business Community’s Position
    4.25 Section 215—Effects of March 2006 PATRIOT Act Amendments
    4.26 Section 215—Current Constitutionality Challenges
    4.27 Section 216—Modification of Authorities Relating to Use of Pen Registers and Trap and Trace Devices, 18 U.S.C. §§ 3121, 3123, 3214, and 3127
    4.28 Section 216—The “Cell Site Data” Cases: Cellular Telephones as Mobile Tracking Devices
    4.29 Section 217—Interception of Computer Trespasser Communications, 18 U.S.C. §§ 2510, 2511
    4.30 Section 218—Foreign Intelligence Information, 50 U.S.C. §§ 1804, 1823
    4.31 Section 219—Single-Jurisdiction Search Warrants for Terrorism, Fed. R. Crim. P. 41
    4.32 Section 220—Nationwide Service of Search Warrants for Electronic Evidence, 18 U.S.C. §§ 2703, 2711
    4.33 Section 222—Assistance to Law Enforcement Agencies, 18 U.S.C. § 3124
    4.34 Section 223—Civil Liability for Certain Unauthorized Disclosures, 18 U.S.C. §§ 2420, 2707, 2712
    4.35 Section 224—Sunset
    4.36 Section 225—Immunity for Compliance with FISA Wiretap, 50 U.S.C. § 1805
    4.37 National Security Agency Domestic Electronic Surveillance
    4.38 Is the NSA Surveillance Illegal?
    4.39 NSA Domestic Surveillance—Evidentiary Suppression
    4.40 NSA Domestic Surveillance—Destruction of Illegally Obtained Information
    4.41 NSA Domestic Surveillance—Qualified Immunity of Senior Government Officials
    4.42 NSA Domestic Surveillance—Criminal Liability
    4.43 NSA Domestic Surveillance—Civil Liability
    4.44 NSA Domestic Surveillance—The State Secrets Privilege
    4.45 NSA Domestic Surveillance—Privilege Under the National Security Act of 1959
    4.46 NSA Domestic Surveillance—Catalog of Current Cases as of November 17, 2006
    4.47 The End of NSA Warrantless Domestic Surveillance?

    Chapter 5 Financial Privacy and the PATRIOT Act: Money Laundering and Reporting by Broadly Defined “Financial Institutions”
    5.01 Introduction to Title III—International Money Laundering Abatement and Anti-Terrorist Financing Act of 2001
    5.02 The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network
    5.03 Section 311—Special Measures for Jurisdictions, Financial Institutions, or International Transactions of Primary Money Laundering Concern, 31 U.S.C. § 5318A
    5.04 Section 312—Special Due Diligence for Correspondent Accounts and Private Banking Accounts, 31 U.S.C. § 5318(i)
    5.05 Section 313—Prohibition on United States Correspondent Accounts with Foreign Shell Banks, 31 U.S.C. § 5318(j)
    5.06 Section 314—Cooperative Efforts To Deter Money Laundering
    5.07 Section 319—Forfeiture of Funds in United States Interbank Accounts, 18 U.S.C. § 981, 31 U.S.C. §5318(k)
    5.08 Section 321—Financial Institutions Specified in 31 U.S.C. § 5312(2)
    5.09 Section 325—Concentration Accounts at Financial Institutions, 31 U.S.C. § 5318(h).
    5.10 Section 326—Verification of Identification, 31 U.S.C. § 5318(l).
    5.11 Sec. 328—International Cooperation on Identification of Originators of Wire Transfers
    5.12 Section 330—International Cooperation in Investigations of Money Laundering
    5.13 Section 351—Reporting Suspicious Activities, 31 U.S.C. § 5318(g)
    5.14 Section 352—Anti-Money Laundering Programs, 18 U.S.C. § 5318(h)
    5.15 Section 355—Authorization To Include Suspicions of Illegal Activity in Written Employment References, 12 U.S.C. § 1828
    5.16 Section 356—Reporting of Suspicious Activities by Securities Brokers and Dealers; Investment Company Study
    5.17 Section 358—Bank Secrecy Provisions and Activities of United States Intelligence Agencies To Fight International Terrorism
    5.18 Section 359—Reporting of Suspicious Activities by Underground Banking Systems, 31 U.S.C §§5312, 5318, 5330
    5.19 Section 361—Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, 31 U.S.C. § 310
    5.20 Section 362—Establishment of Highly Secure Network
    5.21 Section 365—Reports Relating to Coins and Currency Received in Nonfinancial Trade or Business, 31 U.S.C. § 5331
    5.22 Section 366—Efficient Use of Currency Transaction Report System
    5.23 Sections 371 to 377—Currency Crimes and Protections
    5.24 A Practical Minimum Outline for PATRIOT Act/Bank Secrecy Act Compliance Programs

    Chapter 6 Immigration
    6.01 Introduction to Title IV—Protecting the Borders: Outline of Immigration Law Authorities
    6.02 Interaction of Immigration Law and Criminal Law
    6.03 Section 403—Criminal Histories and Biometric Identifiers—Access to Certain Information on Applicants for Visas and Admission to the United States, 8 U.S.C. §§ 1105, 1379
    6.04 Section 405—Biometric Identifiers—Report on the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System, 8 U.S.C. § 1379 (note)
    6.05 Section 411—Definitions Relating to Terrorism, 8 U.S.C. §§ 1158, 1182, 1189, 1227
    6.06 Section 412—Mandatory Detention of Suspected Terrorists; Habeas Corpus; Judicial Review, 8 U.S.C. § 1226a
    6.07 Mandatory Detention – Reporting and Non-use of § 412
    6.08 Other Detentions – Beyond § 412 – Authorization to Use Military Force
    6.09 Beyond § 412 – Extraordinary Rendition
    6.10 Beyond § 412 – Hamdan v. Rumsfeld and the Limits of the President’s Inherent Authority to Detain
    6.11 Beyond § 412 – The Military Commissions Act of 2006
    6.12 Section 414—Biometric Identifiers – Visa Integrity and Security, 8 U.S.C. § 1365a
    6.13 Section 416—Foreign Student Monitoring Program, 8 U.S.C. § 1372
    6.14 Section 417—Machine Readable Passports and RFID, 8 U.S.C. § 1187
    6.15 Provisions Outside Scope
    6.16 PATRIOT Act Immigration Law Provisions in Other Titles
    6.17 Limited Information Available on Use of PATRIOT Act
    6.18 Homeland Security Presidential Directive 6
    6.19 6 U.S.C. § 485
    6.20 Criminal Intelligence System Guidelines, 28 C.F.R. Part 23
    6.21 The National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan
    6.22 Confidentiality of Identifiable Research and Statistical Information, 28 C.F.R. Part 22
    6.23 “Secure Flight” – An Example of Information Sharing in Operation
    6.24 Traveler Misidentification
    6.25 NSEERS
    6.26 US-VISIT- Introduction
    6.27 Risks to Privacy of US-VISIT
    6.28 Other Relevant Government Databases and Their Implementation
    6.29 Potential Impact of National Security Agency Eavesdropping

    Chapter 7 National Security Letters, DNA, and Other Investigatory Tools
    7.01 Introduction to Title V—Removing Obstacles to Investigating Terrorism
    7.02 Section 503—DNA Identification of Terrorists and Other Violent Offenders, 42 U.S.C. § 14135a
    7.03 Section 504—Coordination with Law Enforcement, 50 U.S.C. §§ 1806, 1825
    7.04 Section 505—National Security Letters—Definitions, 12 U.S.C. § 3414, 15 U.S.C. §§ 1681u and 1681v, 18 U.S.C. § 2709, 50 U.S.C. § 436
    7.05 Section 505—National Security Letters—Legal Areas Covered
    7.06 Section 505—National Security Letters—Frequency of Use
    7.07 Section 505—National Security Letters—Impact
    7.08 Section 505—Who Can Receive a National Security Letter?
    7.09 Section 505—National Security Letters—Business Community Response
    7.10 Section 505—National Security Letters—Judicial Response — Doe v. Ashcroft and Doe v. Gonzales
    7.11 Section 505—National Security Letters—Elimination of “Specific and Articulable Facts” Standard
    7.12 Section 505—National Security Letters—Statutory Amendment and Consolidated Appeal
    7.13 Section 505—National Security Letters—Judicial Review
    7.14 Section 505—National Security Letters—Required Reports and Audits of NSL Use
    7.15 Section 506—Extension of Secret Service Jurisdiction, 18 U.S.C. §§ 1030, 3056
    7.16 Section 507—Disclosure of Educational Records, 20 U.S.C. § 1232g
    7.17 Section 508—Disclosure of Information from NCES Surveys, 20 U.S.C. § 9007

    Chapter 8 New Crimes and Their Impacts on Privacy
    8.01 Introduction to Title VIII—Strengthening the Criminal Laws Against Terrorism
    8.02 Section 802—Definition of Domestic Terrorism, 18 U.S.C. § 2331
    8.03 Sections 805 & 811, Material Support for Terrorism, 18 U.S.C. §§ 2339A and 2339B
    8.04 Section 805—Material Support Crimes—Constitutional Challenges
    8.05 Section 805—Material Support Crimes—Post-Challenge Amended Definitions
    8.06 Section 805—Material Support Crimes—Implications for the Practitioner
    8.07 Section 808—Federal Crime of Terrorism, 18 U.S.C. 2332b
    8.08 Section 809—No Statute of Limitation for Certain Terrorism Offenses
    8.09 Section 812—Post-Release Supervision of Terrorists, 18 U.S.C. § 3583
    8.10 Section 814—Deterrence and Prevention of Cyberterrorism, 18 U.S.C. § 1030

    Chapter 9 Information Sharing Among Intelligence Agencies
    9.01 Introduction to Title IX—Improved Intelligence
    9.02 Section 901—Responsibilities of Director of Central Intelligence Regarding Certain Intelligence
    9.03 Section 905—Disclosure to DCI Respecting Criminal Investigations, 50 U.S.C. § 403-5b
    9.04 Section 905—Relation to Executive Order 12,333
    9.05 Section 905—Intelligence Agency Information-Sharing Assessment
    9.06 National Security Agency Dissemination of Domestic Electronic Surveillance Information
    9.07 Section 906—Foreign Terrorist Asset Tracking Center
    9.08 The SWIFT Program

    Chapter 10 Miscellaneous Provisions
    10.01 Introduction to Title X—Miscellaneous
    10.02 Section 1003—Definition of Electronic Surveillance, 50 U.S.C. § 1801(f)
    10.03 Section 1006—Inadmissibility of Aliens Engaged in Money Laundering
    10.04 Sections 1008 and 1009—Feasibility Studies
    10.05 Section 1011—Crimes Against Charitable Americans, 15 U.S.C. § 6101, 18 U.S.C. §§ 917, 2325
    10.06 Section 1012—Limitation on Issuance of Hazmat Licenses, 49 U.S.C. § 5103a
    10.07 The Transportation Worker Identification Credential

    Appendix A The USA PATRIOT Act Appendix B Amendments and Extensions
    —Technical Corrections to the USA PATRIOT Act Made by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, Public Law No. 108-458, 118 Stat. 3638.
    —Extension of Temporary Authorities Under the USA PATRIOT Act and the “Lone Wolf” Provision of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act Until February 3, 2006, Public Law No. 109-160, 119 Stat. 2957.
    —Extension of Temporary Authorities Under the USA PATRIOT Act and the “Lone Wolf” Provision of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act Until March 10, 2006, Public Law No. 109-170, 120 Stat. 3.
    —USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005, Public Law No. 109-177, 120 Stat. 192.
    —USA PATRIOT Act Additional Reauthorizing Amendments Act of 2006, Public Law No. 109-178, 120 Stat. 278.