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Understanding Islamic Law

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2011 Edition
ISBN: 9781579110420
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The demand for a book like Understanding Islamic Law among law students and legal practitioners in America and throughout the English-speaking world is large and growing. Islamic Law is not merely a "hot topic". It is a growing trend that is an increasingly mainstream fixture in the legal landscape. There is nothing currently on the market for Law Schools, like Understanding Islamic Law, that is a comprehensive text, in English, by a non-Muslim law professor.

The first 11 chapters of Understanding Islamic Law give the essential foundational materials for the study of Islamic Law. The remaining chapters cover several other pertinent fields: banking and finance, contracts, criminal law, family law, and property.

Understanding Islamic Law also:
• Includes Arabic terms, in English, with diacritical marks to assist in pronunciation;
• Provides A Glossary of Arabic Terms; and
• Incorporates recent developments such as the burkha ban in France.

Understanding Islamic Law (Sharia) is a thorough and balanced text that can be used without supplementation in a one-semester Islamic Law course.

The first 11 chapters of Understanding Islamic Law give the essential foundational materials for the study of Islamic Law. The remaining chapters cover several other pertinent fields: banking and finance, contracts, criminal law, family law, and property.

Understanding Islamic Law also:
• Includes Arabic terms, in English, with diacritical marks to assist in pronunciation;
• Provides A Glossary of Arabic Terms; and
• Incorporates recent developments such as the burkha ban in France.

Understanding Islamic Law (Sharia) is a thorough and balanced text that can be used without supplementation in a one-semester Islamic Law course.

Table of Contents

PART ONE ORIGINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Chapter 1 MUHAMMAD (PBUH) BEFORE PROPHETHOOD (570/571–610 A.D.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Chapter 2 MUHAMMAD (PBUH) AS PROPHET (610–632 A.D.) . . . 33

Chapter 3 HOLY QUR’BN (610–650 A.D.): REVELATION, COMPILATION, AND TENETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

PART TWO GOLDEN AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

Chapter 4 CALIPHS OF MECCA AND MEDINA (RASHIDUN) (632–661 A.D.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

Chapter 5 UMAYYAD CALIPHATE (661–750 A.D.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

Chapter 6 ABBASID CALIPHATE (750–1258 A.D.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

Chapter 7 THE CRUSADES (1095–1272 A.D.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

PART THREE SCHISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

Chapter 8 SUNNI-SH[‘[TE SPLIT (632–680 A.D.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

Chapter 9 SH[‘[SM AND ITS IMBMS (680–940 A.D.) . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

PART FOUR LAST GREAT ERA? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

Chapter 10 OTTOMAN TURKISH EMPIRE (11th Century–1923 A.D.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

Chapter 11 MOGHUL INDIAN EMPIRE (1504–1857 A.D.) . . . . . . . . 261

Chapter 12 FUNDAMENTAL SOURCES: HOLY QUR’BN AND SUNNAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285

PART SIX PRACTICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351

Chapter 16 FOUR SUNNITE SCHOOLS OF ISLAMIC LAW . . . . . . 387

PART SEVEN COMMERCIAL LAW, CAPITALISM, AND GLOBAL
TRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409


Chapter 17 ISLAM AND CAPITALIST ECONOMIC GROWTH . . . 411

Chapter 18 PROPERTY LAW: OWNERSHIP AND PROPERTY . . . 433

Chapter 19 PROPERTY LAW: PUBLIC PROPERTY, PRIVATE PROPERTY, AND POSSESSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457

Chapter 20 PROPERTY LAW: PROTECTING AND RESTRICTING PRIVATE OWNERSHIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489

Chapter 21 CONTRACT LAW: GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND CONTRACT FORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 22 CONTRACT LAW: TYPES OF CONTRACTS . . . . . . . . 549

Chapter 23 CONTRACT LAW: PERFORMANCE, TERMS, AND REMEDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577

Chapter 24 BUSINESS ASSOCIATIONS LAW: TRADITIONAL TYPES OF PARTNERSHIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595

Chapter 25 BUSINESS ASSOCIATIONS LAW: MODERN PARTNERSHIPS AND AGRICULTURAL VENTURES . ……..637

PART EIGHT BANKING LAW, CAPITALISM, AND GLOBAL FINANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651

Chapter 26 BANKING LAW: RISK (GHARAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653

Chapter 27 BANKING LAW: INTEREST (RIBB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667

Chapter 28 BANKING LAW: LEGAL DEVICES (ḤIYAL) AND THE PROHIBITION ON INTEREST (RIBB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703

Chapter 29 FINANCE (TAMWEEL): ISLAMIC BONDS (ṢUKUK) AND

Chapter 30 FINANCE (TAMWEEL): TYPES AND RISKS OF ISLAMIC BONDS (ṢUKUK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 781

Chapter 31 FINANCE (TAMWEEL): INSURANCE (TAKAFUL) AND MONEY TRANSFERS (ḤAWBLAH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 801


Chapter 32 FINANCE (TAMWEEL): INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTS AND MARKETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 827

PART NINE FAMILY LAW AND WOMEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 857

Chapter 33 MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859

Chapter 35 RIGHTS OF WIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 915

Chapter 36 WOMEN AND CLOTHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 941

Chapter 37 WOMEN AND WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 965

Chapter 38 REARING CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 991

Chapter 39 CONTRACEPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1001

Chapter 40 ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1047

PART ELEVEN INHERITANCE LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1089

Chapter 41 WILLS (WAṢBYB), CHARITABLE TRUSTS (WAQFS), AND EUTHANASIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1091

Chapter 42 LAW OF SUCCESSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1127

PART TWELVE CRIMINAL LAW (‘UQKBBT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1165

Chapter 43 KEY CONCEPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1167

Chapter 44 CLAIMS OF GOD (ḤAQQ ALLBH): SEX CRIMES . . . 1197

Chapter 45 CLAIMS OF GOD (ḤAQQ ALLBH): DRINKING AND STEALING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1229

Chapter 46 CLAIMS OF GOD (ḤAQQ ALLBH): CONVERTING AND RELIGIOUS FREEDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1253

Chapter 47 PRIVATE CLAIMS (ḤAQQBDAM[) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1285

PART THIRTEEN INTERNATIONAL LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1307

Chapter 48 LAW OF WAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1309

Chapter 49 JIHBD (STRUGGLE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1339

Chapter 50 TERRORISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1359

PART FOURTEEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1383

GLOSSARY OF ARABIC TERMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1385

INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1