Proving Medical Diagnosis and Prognosis

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Hundreds of medical tests--how they are performed and how to read their findings; includes complete, authoritative guidance on orthopedic, neurologic, laboratory and other clinical tests. In-depth discussion of medical records. Simple steps for measuring the examining doctor's performance in every primary medical test covered:

•  Anatomy and physiology. Medical background for each test.
•  Indications. What the doctor attempts to prove with each test.
•  Methods.
•  Findings. "Positive" and "negative" results explained for each test.
•  Possible errors.
•  Confirmation of Results. Other tests the doctor can use if results are in doubt.
•  Relative effectiveness. Relevance of test results to the injury.
•  Direct and cross examinations. Trial-tested techniques from actual court transcripts.

Numerous charts, tables and illustrations provide quick reference to the common concepts of diagnosis. Detailed index.

First published in 1970.

14 Volumes; Looseleaf; updated 2 times each year with revisions and supplements.

Featured Social Security Disability Titles

Authors / Contributors

Table of Contents



Chapter 1 Differing Medical and Medico-Legal Concepts of Diagnosis

Chapter 2 Basic Anatomy and Physiology of the Low Back

Chapter 3 Diagnosing Low Back Conditions: The Medical History

Chapter 3A Low Back Pain

Chapter 3B Diagnosing Low Back Conditions: The Physical Examination

Chapter 4 Selecting the Specific Low Back Diagnosis

Chapter 5 Biomechanics of Low Back Problems and Rationale of Diagnostic Tests

Chapter 5A Injury of the Lumbar Intervertebral Disc

Chapter 5B Thoracic Disc Herniation

Chapter 5C Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis

Chapter 5D Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

Chapter 5E Ankylosing Spondylitis

Chapter 5F Cauda Equina Syndrome

Chapter 6 Lumbar Lordosis

Chapter 7 Range-of-Motion Tests

Chapter 7A Schober Test

Chapter 8 Scoliosis

Chapter 9 Torsion Test

Chapter 10 Pelvic Tilt Test

Chapter 11 Percussion Test

Chapter 11A Sciatic Nerve Injuries and Disorders


Chapter 12 Straight Leg-Raising Test

Chapter 12A Laségue's Test

Chapter 13 Variations of the Straight Leg-Raising Test

Chapter 14 Soto-Hall's Sign (Test)

Chapter 15 Cross Leg-Raising Test

Chapter 16 Ultrasonic Stimulation Test

Chapter 17 The Stoop Test

Chapter 18 Bowstring Test

Chapter 19 Posterior Tibial Nerve Test

Chapter 20 Cervical Tension (Flexion) Test

Chapter 21 Jackknife Test

Chapter 22 Double Thigh Flexion Test (Rocking Test)

Chapter 23 Hyperextension Test for the Lumbosacral Joint

Chapter 23A Gluteal Skyline Test

Chapter 24 Hamstring Muscle Test

Chapter 25 Yeoman's Test

Chapter 26 Hyperextension Tests for the Sacroiliac Joint

Chapter 27 Gaenslen's Test

Chapter 28 Ely's Test

Chapter 28A Iliac Compression Test For Sacroiliac Joint

Chapter 29 Ober's Test

Chapter 30 Thomas Test

Chapter 31 Sciatic Nerve Tenderness Test

Chapter 32 Turyn's Test

Chapter 33 Malingerer's Toe Test

Chapter 34 Hanraet's Malingerer's Test

Chapter 35 Deep Tendon Reflexes

Chapter 36 Knee Jerk Reflex

Chapter 37 Ankle Jerk Reflex

Chapter 38 Posterior Tibial Jerk Reflex

Chapter 39 Ankle Clonus Test

Chapter 40 Knee Clonus Test

Chapter 41 Babinski (Plantar Reflex) Test

Chapter 42 Variations of the Babinski (Plantar Reflex) Test

Chapter 43 Sensory Testing of the Leg

Chapter 44 Muscle Strength Testing in the Leg: An Overview

Chapter 45 Muscle Strength Tests in the Leg

Chapters 45A--49 [Reserved]

Chapter 50 Test for Arterial Pulses

Chapter 50A Leriche Syndrome

Chapter 51 Jugular Compression (Viets-Naffziger) Test

Chapter 52 Hip Range-of-Motion Tests: The Fabere, Fadir and LaGuerre Tests for Hip Pain

Chapters 53--54 [Reserved]

Chapter 55 Chest Expansion Test

Chapter 56 Mensuration Tests (Physical Measurements)

Chapter 57 Osteomyelitis

Chapter 57A Vertebral Osteomyelitis

Chapter 58 Fractures of the Ribs and Sternum

Chapter 59 Iliac Crest Point Test

Chapter 60 Skin Rolling Test


Chapter 61 X-Ray Tests

Chapter 61A Imaging Tests of the Lumbar Spine

Chapter 62--63 [Reserved]

Chapter 64A Sacral Fractures

Chapter 65--66 [Reserved]

Chapter 67 Imaging Tests: Infections

Chapter 68 Imaging Tests: Sacroiliac Joint

Chapter 69 Imaging Tests: Osteoarthritis

Chapter 70 Imaging Tests: Spina Bifida

Chapter 71 Imaging Tests: Transitional Vertebrae

Chapter 72 Imaging Tests: Osteoporosis

Chapter 72A Pelvic Fractures

Chapter 73 Imaging Tests: Laminagrams

Chapter 73A Computerized Tomography: Low Back

Chapter 73B Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Low Back

Chapter 74 Imaging Tests: Stereoscopy

Chapter 75 Myelography

Chapter 76 Discography

Chapter 77 [Reserved]

Chapter 78 Cerebrospinal Fluid Tests: Lumbar Puncture

Chapter 79 Cerebrospinal Fluid Tests: Cisternal Puncture

Chapter 80 Queckenstedt Test

Chapter 81 Lumbar Needle Biopsy

Chapter 82 Nerve Conduction Tests

Chapter 83 Saline Injection Test (Harmon's Test)

Chapter 84 Low Back Blood Tests

Chapter 85 Low Back Urinalysis

Chapter 86 Medical Thermography

Chapter 86A Thermography in the Courtroom: Plaintiff's Positive Black-and-White Thermogram

Chapter 86B Thermography in the Courtroom: Tele-Electronic Color Thermography of Shoulder Injury: $250,000 Settlement

Chapter 87 [Reserved]

Chapter 88 Indications for Lumbar Disc Surgery

Chapter 89 MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) As A Pre-Operative Surgical Test

Chapter 89A Waddell Tests

Chapter 90 The Burns' Test

Chapter 90A Chemonucleolysis

Chapter 90B Percutaneous Discectomy



Chapter 91 Diagnosing Neck Ailments

Chapter 91A Anatomy and Physiology of Neck Area

Chapter 91B Physical Examination of the Neck

Chapter 91C Checklist Approach to Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis of Neck Ailments

Chapter 92 The Cervical Syndromes

Chapter 92A Neck Palpation Test

Chapter 93 Soft Tissue Whiplash Injuries

Chapter 93A "Whiplash" Superimposed on Preexisting Conditions: $196,000 Verdict

Chapter 94 Loss Of Cervical Lordosis

Chapter 95 Neck Range-of-Motion Tests

Chapter 96 Compression Tests

Chapter 96A Soto-Hall Sign: Neck

Chapter 97 Distraction Test

Chapter 98 "Yes-No" Test

Chapter 99 Anteroposterior Distracting Tests

Chapter 100 Shoulder Depression Test

Chapter 101 Deep Tendon Reflexes

Chapter 102 Biceps Brachii Reflex Test

Chapter 103 Triceps Reflex Test

Chapter 104 Brachioradialis Reflex Test

Chapter 105 Hoffmann Test

Chapter 106 Sensory Testing

Chapter 107 Muscle Testing of the Shoulder and Elbow

Chapter 108 Muscle Testing of the Forearm and Hand

Chapters 109--120 [Reserved]

Chapter 121 Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Neck

Chapter 122 Computed Tomography: Neck

Chapter 123 Physical Examination of the Thorax

Chapter 123A Chest X-Rays


Chapter 124 Thoracic Outlet Compression Syndrome

Chapter 125 Test for Arterial Pulses

Chapter 126 Scalenus Test

Chapter 127 Abduction Test

Chapter 128 Costoclavicular Maneuver Test

Chapter 129 Auscultation Test

Chapter 130 Adson's Test

Chapter 131 [Reserved]

Chapter 132 Mensuration Tests (Physical Measurements)

Chapter 133 X-Ray Tests: Neck

Chapter 133A Imaging of Cervical Spine

Chapter 134 X-Ray Tests: Protruded or Herniated Intervertebral Disc

Chapter 135 X-Ray Tests: Osteoarthritis and Other Degenerative Disorders

Chapter 136 X-Ray Tests: Whiplash

Chapter 137 X-Ray Tests: Rheumatoid Arthritis

Chapter 138 X-Ray Tests: Osteomyelitis

Chapter 139 X-Ray Tests: Tuberculosis

Chapter 140 X-Ray Tests: Fracture-Dislocations

Chapter 141 X-Ray Tests: Metastases

Chapter 142 Imaging Tests: Spondylolisthesis

Chapter 143 Imaging Tests: Spinal Tumor

Chapter 144 Imaging Tests: Congenital Anomalies

Chapter 145 Imaging Tests: Laminagrams

Chapter 146 Imaging Tests: Stereoscopy

Chapter 147 Cervical Myelography

Chapter 148 Discography

Chapter 149 Cineradiography

Chapter 150 Cervical Needle Biopsy

Chapter 151 Electromyography

Chapter 152 Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Disorders

Chapter 153 Diagnosis of Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Disorders: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Chapters 154--155 [Reserved]



Chapter 156 Anatomy and Physiology of Peripheral Joints

Chapter 157 Physical Examination of Peripheral Joints

Chapter 157A Nerve Lesions (Defects)

Chapter 157B Muscular Dystrophy

Chapter 157C Complex Regional Pain Syndromes: Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (CRPS, Type I) and Causalgia (CRPS, Type II)

Chapter 157D Myofascial and Fibromyalgia Syndromes

Chapter 158 Diagnosing Peripheral Joint Problems


Chapter 158A Injuries to the Shoulder Area

Chapter 158B Diagnosing Shoulder Area Problems

Chapter 158C Ruptures of the Rotator Cuff

Chapter 158D Frozen Shoulder

Chapter 158E Rheumatoid Arthritis in the Shoulder

Chapter 158F Osteoarthritis in the Shoulder

Chapter 159 Range of Motion

Chapter 160 Shoulder Palpation Test

Chapter 160A Glenohumeral Palpation Test

Chapter 161 Bicipital Subluxation Test

Chapter 162 Rotator Cuff Test-I

Chapter 163 Rotator Cuff Test-II

Chapter 164 Rotator Cuff Test-III

Chapter 164A Shoulder Impingement Test

Chapter 165 Acromioclavicular Joint Test

Chapter 166 Acromioclavicular Anesthetic Test

Chapter 167 X-Ray Tests: Shoulder

Chapter 167A Ultrasonography of the Shoulder

Chapter 167B Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Shoulder

Chapter 168 X-Ray Tests: Calcific Tendinitis

Chapter 169 Imaging Tests: Shoulder Dislocation

Chapter 170 X-Ray Tests: Arthritis of the Shoulder

Chapter 171 Imaging Tests: Fractures of the Shoulder

Chapter 171A Fractures of the Humerus

Chapter 171B Replacement of Parts of Shoulder Joint

Chapter 172 Imaging Tests: Acromioclavicular Separation

Chapter 173 X-Ray Tests: Acromioclavicular Arthritis

Chapter 174 [Reserved]

Chapter 175 Imaging Tests: Tumors

Chapter 175A Shoulder Arthroscopy

Chapter 176 Arthrography

Chapter 176A Serratus Anterior Muscle Tests



Chapter 176B Fractures of the Elbow in Adults

Chapter 176C Diagnosing Elbow Joint Problems

Chapter 176D Injuries to the Elbow Joint

Chapter 177 Elbow Range-of-Motion Test

Chapter 178 Tests for Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow)

Chapter 179 Tests for Medial Epicondylitis

Chapter 179A Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

Chapter 179B Olecranon Bursitis

Chapter 180 X-Ray Tests: Elbow

Chapter 180A Elbow Arthroscopy

Chapter 181 Imaging Tests: Fracture of the Radial Head (In The Adult)

Chapter 182 Imaging Tests: Children's Fractures

Chapter 183 Imaging Tests: Adult Fractures

Chapter 184 Imaging Tests: Dislocations

Chapter 185 Imaging Tests: Arthritis

Chapter 186 Imaging Tests: Tumors

Chapter 187 Imaging Tests: Olecranon Fractures

Chapter 188 Elbow Palpation Test


Chapter 189 Diagnosing Wrist Joint Problems

Chapter 190 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Chapter 191 Injuries to the Wrist Area

Chapter 191A Colles' Fracture; Smith's Fracture; Barton's Fracture

Chapter 192 Wrist Range-of-Motion Tests

Chapter 193 Finkelstein's Test for Wrist

Chapter 194 Wrist Flexion (Phalen's) Test

Chapter 195 Wrist Extension Test

Chapter 196 Tinel's Sign for Wrist

Chapter 197 Knuckle Percussion Test

Chapter 198 Finger Extension Test

Chapter 199 Transillumination Test

Chapter 199A Wrist Palpation Test

Chapter 199B Tourniquet Test for Carpal Tunnel

Chapter 199C Carpal Compression Test

Chapter 200 Imaging Tests: Wrist Joint

Chapter 200A Arthrography of the Wrist

Chapter 200B Arthroscopy of the Wrist

Chapter 201 Imaging Tests: Colles' Fractures

Chapter 202 Imaging Tests: Fracture of the Scaphoid

Chapter 202A Fractures of the Scaphoid

Chapter 203 Imaging Tests: Lunate and Perilunate Dislocations

Chapter 204 Imaging Tests: Arthritis


Chapter 204A Diagnosing Hand Problems

Chapter 204B Injuries to the Hand

Chapter 204C Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome

Chapter 205 Hand Range-of-Motion Tests

Chapter 205A Hand Palpation Test

Chapter 206 Grind Test for Hand

Chapter 207 Allen Test for Hand

Chapter 208 Flexor Digitorum Profundus Tendon Test

Chapter 209 Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (Sublimis) Tendon Test

Chapter 210 Imaging Tests: Hand

Chapter 211 Imaging Tests: Hand Fractures

Chapter 212 Imaging Tests: Arthritis in Hand

Chapter 212A Hand Surgery in Arthritis

Chapter 213 Imaging Tests: Tumor in Hand



Chapter 213A Diagnosing Hip Joint Problems

Chapter 213B Fractures of the Hip

Chapter 214 Hip Range-of-Motion Tests

Chapter 214A Hip Palpation Test

Chapter 215 Flexion Contracture Tests

Chapter 216 Leg Length Tests

Chapter 217 Heel Pounding Test

Chapter 218 Telescoping Test

Chapter 219 Barlow's Test

Chapter 220 Ortolani's Test

Chapter 221 Asymmetrical Skin Folds Test

Chapter 222 Trendelenburg Test

Chapter 223 X-Ray Tests: Fractures of the Hip

Chapter 224 [Reserved]

Chapter 225 X-Ray Tests: Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

Chapter 226 X-Ray Tests: Tumors in Hip

Chapter 227 Arthritis of the Hip

Chapter 228 Legg-Perthes' Disease

Chapter 229 Developmental Dysplasia of the

Chapter 229A Avascular Necrosis of the Hip

Chapter 230 Auscultatory-Percussion Test for Fractures of the Hip and Pelvis

Chapter 230A The Barford Test

Chapter 231 Total Hip Replacement

Chapter 232 Hip Arthroscopy


Chapter 233 Injuries of the Knee Joint

Chapter 233A Diagnosing Knee Joint Problems

Chapter 233B Total Knee Replacement

Chapter 233C Osteonecrosis of the Knee


Chapter 234 Knee Range of Motion Test

Chapter 234A Knee Palpation Test

Chapter 235 Knee Fluid Tests

Chapter 236 Collateral Ligament Tests of the Knee

Chapter 237 Drawer Test

Chapter 238 Compression Knee Test

Chapter 239 Knee Extension Test

Chapter 240 Fouche's Knee Test

Chapter 241 Duck Waddle Knee Test

Chapter 242 McMurray's Knee Test

Chapter 243 Apley's Grinding Knee Test

Chapter 244 Forced Abduction Knee Test

Chapter 245 Joint Line Knee Test

Chapter 246 Apprehension Knee Test

Chapter 246A Tests for Chondromalacia of the Patella (Kneecap)

Chapter 247 Fat Droplet Knee Test

Chapter 247A Arthroscopy of the Knee

Chapter 247B Pivot Shift Tests for the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

Chapters 247C--247E [Reserved]

Chapter 247F Knee Crossover Test

Chapter 247G Lachman Test for the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

Chapter 248 Imaging Tests: Knee

Chapter 249 Imaging Tests: Knee Fractures

Chapter 249A Fractures of the Tibial Shaft

Chapter 250 X-Ray Tests: Arthritis of the Knee

Chapter 251 Imaging Tests: Osteochondritis Dissecans

Chapter 252 X-Ray Tests: Stress X-Ray of the Knee

Chapter 253 X-Ray Tests: Arthrograms

Chapter 253A Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Knee

Chapter 254 X-Ray Tests: Loose Body in Knee

Chapter 255 Imaging Tests: Rupture of the Patellar Ligament

Chapter 256 Imaging Tests: Rupture of Quadriceps Tendon

Chapter 256A Imaging Tests: "Tooth" Sign of Patella

Chapter 257 Imaging Tests: Subluxation of the Patella


Chapter 257A Injuries in the Ankle Area

Chapter 257B Diagnosing Ankle Joint Problems

Chapter 257C Achilles Tendon Rupture

Chapter 258 Ankle Range of Motion Tests

Chapter 258A Ankle Palpation Test

Chapter 259 Thompson Ankle Test

Chapter 260 Achilles Tendon Test

Chapter 260A Ankle Drawer Sign

Chapter 261 Diagnostic Imaging: Ankle

Chapter 261A X-Ray Tests: Arthrography of the Ankle

Chapter 261B Peroneal Tenography

Chapter 261C Needle Test of Achilles Tendon

Chapter 261D Ankle Arthroscopy

Chapter 262 Diagnostic Imaging: Ankle Fractures

Chapter 262A Total Ankle Replacement

Chapter 263 X-Ray Tests: Stress X-Ray of Ankle


Chapter 263A Injuries to the Foot

Chapter 263B Diagnosing Foot Problems

Chapter 263C Fractures of the Calcaneus (Heel Bone)


Chapter 264 Foot Range-of-Motion Tests

Chapter 265 Plantar Neuroma Test (Morton's Neuroma)

Chapter 265A Foot Palpation Test

Chapter 266 Sensory Tests of the Foot

Chapter 266A Imaging Tests: Foot


Chapter 267 Joint Aspiration Tests

Chapter 268 Culture and Sensitivities Tests

Chapter 269 Joint Biopsy

Chapter 269A Muscle Biopsy

Chapter 270 Arthritis

Chapter 270A Gout

Chapter 271 Postoperative Thromboembolic Disease

Chapter 271A Fat Embolism Syndrome

Chapter 272 Joint Replacement: Acrylic Cement

Chapter 273 Delayed Union and Nonunion of Fractures

Chapter 274 Vascular Injuries Associated with Fractures and Dislocations

Chapter 274A Osteoporosis

Chapter 274B Paget's Disease of Bone



Chapter 275 Central Nervous System

Chapter 276 Spinal Cord

Chapter 276A Injuries to Spinal Regions About the Cord

Chapter 276B Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis

Chapter 276C Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease

Chapter 277 The Neurological Examination

Chapter 277A Medico-Legal Analysis of the Neurological Examination

Chapter 277B Psychological and Neuropsychological Testing

Chapter 278 Selecting the Specific Diagnosis

Chapter 278A Diagnosis of Brain Damage

Chapter 279 Test for Cranial Nerve I (Olfactory Nerve)

Chapter 280 Test for Cranial Nerve II (Optic Nerve)

Chapter 281 Test for Cranial Nerve III (Oculomotor Nerve)

Chapter 282 Test for Cranial Nerve IV (Trochlear Nerve)

Chapter 283 Test for Cranial Nerve V (Trigeminal Nerve)

Chapter 284 Test for Cranial Nerve VI (Abducens Nerve)

Chapter 285 Test for Cranial Nerve VII (Facial Nerve)

Chapter 286 Test for Cranial Nerve VIII (Acoustic Nerve)

Chapter 287 Test for Cranial Nerve IX (Glossopharyngeal Nerve)

Chapter 288 Test for Cranial Nerve X (Vagus Nerve)

Chapter 289 Test for Cranial Nerve XI (Accessory Nerve)

Chapter 290 Test for Cranial Nerve XII (Hypoglossal Nerve)

Chapter 290B Ophthalmologic Examination

Chapter 291 Visual Field Tests

Chapter 292 Ocular Reflex Tests

Chapter 293 Social Security Disability Benefits for Brain-Injured Persons

Chapters 294--296 [Reserved]

Chapter 297 Ophthalmoscopic (Funduscopic) Examination

Chapter 297A Advanced Ophthalmological Testing

Chapter 297B Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye

Chapter 298 Gait Tests

Chapter 299 Abdominal Reflex Test

Chapter 300 Cremasteric Reflex Test

Chapter 301 Kernig Test

Chapter 302 Brudzinski Test

Chapter 303 Rinne Test

Chapter 304 Weber Test

Chapter 305 Caloric Test

Chapter 306 Barany Chair Test

Chapter 308 Finger-to-Finger Test

Chapter 309 Finger-to-Nose Test

Chapter 310 Tremor Test

Chapter 311 Past-Pointing Test

Chapter 312 Pronator Drift Test

Chapter 313 Adiadochokinesia Test

Chapter 314 Hypermetria Test (Stewart-Holmes Rebound Sign)

Chapter 315 Jaw Jerk Reflex Test

Chapter 316 Carotid Sinus Reflex Test

Chapter 317 Oculocardiac Reflex Test

Chapter 318 Hoover's Test

Chapters 319--324 [Reserved]

Chapter 325 Stereognostic Test for Sensation

Chapter 326 Heel-Knee-Tibia Test

Chapter 327 Two-Point Discrimination Test

Chapter 328 Proprioception (Position Sense) Test

Chapter 329 Vibratory Sensation Test

Chapter 330 [Reserved]


Chapter 331 Electroencephalography (EEG)

Chapter 332 Radioisotopic Brain Scanning

Chapter 333 Cerebral Arteriography

Chapter 333A Cerebral Radionuclide Angiography (Angioscintigraphy)

Chapter 334 Pneumoencephalography

Chapter 335 X-Ray Tests of Brain and Skull

Chapter 336 Imaging Tests: Skull Fractures

Chapter 337 Imaging Tests: Subdural Hematoma

Chapter 338 Imaging Tests: Epidural Hematomas

Chapter 339 Imaging Tests: Intracranial Aneurysm
Chapter 340 Imaging Tests: Pituitary Tumor

Chapter 341 Imaging Tests: Intracranial Tumors

Chapter 342 Imaging Tests: Brain Abscess

Chapter 343 Diagnostic Ultrasonography: Head and Eye

Chapter 344 Doppler Ultrasound

Chapter 345 Computed Tomography (CT): Head and Brain

Chapter 346 Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Neurological Disorders

Chapter 347 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of Head and Brain

Chapter 348 Evoked Potentials

Chapters 349--399 [Reserved]


Chapter 400 The Clinical Laboratory

Chapter 401 Laboratory Medicine's Basic Methodology

Chapter 402 Genetic Testing

Chapters 403--409 [Reserved]


Chapter 410 Hematology

Chapter 411 Anatomy and Physiology of Blood

Chapter 412 RBC (Red Blood Cell Count/Erythrocyte Count)

Chapter 413 WBC (White Blood Cell Count/Leukocyte Count)

Chapter 414 Blood Smears

Chapter 415 Leukocyte Differential

Chapter 416 Total Eosinophil Count

Chapter 417 Absolute Basophil Count

Chapter 418 Reticulocyte Count

Chapter 419 Bone Marrow Smears

Chapter 420 Hemoglobin

Chapter 421 Hematocrit

Chapter 422 Erythrocyte Indices (MCV; MCH; MCHC)

Chapter 423 Erythrocyte Fragility Test

Chapter 424 Tests for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

Chapter 425 Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate

Chapter 426 Platelet Count

Chapter 427 Bleeding Time Test

Chapter 428 Whole Blood Clotting Time Test

Chapter 429 Clot Retraction Test

Chapter 430 Tourniquet Test

Chapter 431 Partial Thromboplastin Time Test

Chapter 432 Prothrombin Consumption Time Test

Chapter 433 One-Stage Prothrombin Time Test

Chapter 434 Fecal Occult Blood Testing

Chapter 435 Cholesterol Testing

Chapters 436--499 [Reserved]


Chapter 500 Clinical Biochemistry

Chapter 501 Measurements of Blood Gases

Chapter 502 Tests For Liver Function

Chapter 502A Tests for Hepatitis B

Chapter 502B Tests for Hepatitis C

Chapter 502C Tests for Hepatitis D

Chapter 502D Tests for Hepatitis E

Chapter 503 Bilirubin

Chapter 504 Proteins

Chapter 505 The Transaminases: Aspartate Transaminase (AST or GOT) and Alanine Transaminase (ALT or GPT)

Chapter 506 Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)

Chapter 507 Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT)

Chapter 508 Pulse Oximetry

Chapter 509 Cardiovascular Evaluation

Chapter 510 Sudden Cardiac Death

Chapter 511 Creatine Kinase (CK) (Creatine Phosphokinase, CPK)

Chapters 512--519 [Reserved]

Chapter 520 Glucose Testing

Chapter 521 Tests for Diabetes Mellitus

Chapters 522--599 [Reserved]


Chapter 600 Routine Urinalysis

Chapter 601 Addis Count Test

Chapter 602 Bence Jones Protein Test

Chapters 603--649 [Reserved]


Chapter 650 Clinical Serology

Chapter 651 Tests for Syphilis

Chapter 652 Tests for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Chapter 653 [Reserved]

Chapter 654 C-Reactive Protein Tests

Chapter 655 Tests for Infectious Mononucleosis

Chapter 656 Immunoglobulin Tests

Chapter 657 Complement (Serum Protein) Tests

Chapter 658 Antistreptolysin-O Titer

Chapter 659 Tests for Pregnancy


Chapter 659A Amniocentesis

Chapter 659B Chorionic Villus Sampling

Chapter 659C Treatment of Infertility

Chapter 660 Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

Chapter 661 AIDS Testing

Chapter 662 Tests for Lyme Disease

Chapter 663 Tests for Tuberculosis

Chapters 664--669 [Reserved]


Chapter 670 Colonoscopy

Chapter 671 Sigmoidoscopy

Chapter 672 Diagnostic Laparoscopy

Chapter 673 Tests for Lung Cancer

Chapter 674 Pap Test

Chapters 675--699 [Reserved]


Chapter 700 Medical Records

Chapters 701--702 [Reserved]

Chapter 703 History and Physical Examination

Chapters 704--799 [Reserved]


Chapter 800 Drugs of Abuse Urine Screening

Chapter 801 Alcohol Tests

Chapter 802 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Chapters 803--999 [Reserved]



Chapter 1000 "New Tech" Looks Inside the Body

Chapter 1001 Electrocardiographic (EKG) Tests

Chapters 1002--1004 [Reserved]

Chapter 1005 Angiography

Chapter 1006 Intravenous Pyelography (IVP)

Chapters 1007--1009 [Reserved]

Chapter 1010 Diagnostic Ultrasonography
Chapter 1011 Gray-Scale Ultrasound Test (Sonography) of Lower Extremities

Chapter 1011A Diagnostic Ultrasound: Obstetrics

Chapter 1011B Diagnostic Ultrasonography: Gynecology

Chapter 1011C Diagnostic Ultrasonography: Abdomen

Chapter 1011D Diagnostic Ultrasonography: Vascular

Chapter 1011E Diagnostic Ultrasonography: Joint Pathology

Chapter 1012 Echocardiography

Chapters 1013--1019 [Reserved]

Chapter 1020 Pulmonary Function Testing

Chapter 1021 Cystography

Chapter 1022 Barium Enema

Chapters 1023--1030 [Reserved]

Chapter 1031 Radionuclide Scanning

Chapter 1032 Mammography

Chapter 1033 Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)

Chapter 1033A Computed Tomography (CT)

Chapter 1034 Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

Chapters 1035--1039 [Reserved]

Chapter 1040 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Chapter 1041 Magnetic Resonance Angiography

Chapters 1042--1999 [Reserved]



Chapter 2000 Medical Impairment and Disability Evaluation

Chapter 2001 Measuring Impairment and Disability of the Shoulder

Chapter 2002 Measuring Impairment and Disability of the Elbow

Chapter 2003 Measuring Impairment and Disability of the Digits (Thumb and Fingers)