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Judicial Externships: The Clinic Inside the Courthouse

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Cochran provides materials for classroom discussion, background reading, responses in journal entries, and as the starting point for more in-depth study or research on a topic. Each chapter includes Reports directing students to look in two directions. The In Court Reports ask the externs to connect, as directly as possible, the chapter materials to the extern’s assigned court or to courts in the area. A new feature, the  "Out of Court Reports" focus on the chapter materials themselves by asking how they relate to each other and what questions they raise about judges and judicial processes.

Authors / Contributors

Table of Contents

Chapter One--The Role of the

Judicial Clerk or Extern




A. Judicial Clerks 2





B. Historical Development 3







Foreword--Law Clerks: For Better or Worse?, J.

Daniel Mahoney, 54 Brook. L. Rev. 321 (1988) 3



Notes 5







C. Qualifications and Selection 6







Clerkships 6









Notes 6







D. Responsibilities 8







Foreword--Law Clerks: For Better or Worse?, J.

Daniel Mahoney, 54 Brook. L. Rev. 321 (1988) 8









Notes 9







E. Ethical Considerations 10







1. Confidentiality of Chambers 11





Some Ethical Considerations for Judicial Clerks,

John Paul Jones, 4 Geo. J. Legal Ethics 771 (1991) 11



Notes 12











a. Public Comment on Court Proceedings 13





Model Code of Judicial Conduct, Canon 3B(9) (1990) 13







Code of Conduct for Judicial Employees (1995) 13







In re Corrugated Container Antitrust Litigation,

614 F.2d 958 (5th Cir. 1980) 13







Note 14











b. Judicial Privilege 15





In re Certain Complaints Under Investigation by an

Investigating Committee of the Judicial Council of the

Eleventh Circuit
, 783 F.2d 1488 (11th Cir. 1986) 15













Notes 18











2. Conflict of Interests 19









a. Employment and Family Relations 19





Some Ethical Considerations for Judicial Clerks,

John Paul Jones, 4 Geo. J. Legal Ethics 771 (1991) 19







Deyling v. Flowers, No. 39345 (8th Dist.),

1979 Ohio App. LEXIS 12242 22







Notes 25







Oliva v. Heller, 839 F.2d 37 (2d Cir. 1988)

25







Notes 28







Simonson v. General Motors Corporation, 425

F. Supp. 574 (E.D. Pa. 1976) 28







Notes 33











b. Former Clerks and Externs as Counsel 34











Fredonia Broadcasting Corp., Inc. v. RCA Corp.,

569 F.2d 251 (5th Cir. 1978) 34







Smith v. Pepsico, Inc., 434 F. Supp. 524

(S.D. Fla. 1977) 35







Notes 37











3. Decisionmaking on the Record 38











Some Ethical Considerations for Judicial Clerks,

John Paul Jones, 4 Geo. J. Legal Ethics 771 (1991) 38













Price Brothers Company v. Philadelphia Gear

Corporation
, 649 F.2d 416 (6th Cir. 1981) 40













Note 43









Exercise 43





Selected Bibliography 44





Appendix 46





A. The Clerk or Extern's Court within the Federal or State

System 46







Structure of the Ohio Judicial System--1996 47







B. The Work of the Trial Court and the Appellate Court 49









Chapter Two--Crowded Courts:

Limiting and Delegating Judicial Tasks





A. The Perceived "Litigation Explosion" 51







The Rising Work Load and Perceived

"Bureaucracy" of the Federal Courts: A

Causation-Based Approach to the Search for Appropriate

Remedies
, Harry T. Edwards, 68 Iowa L. Rev. 871 (1983)

52









Notes 60







B. The Big Case 62







In re Boise Cascade Securities Litigation, 420 F.

Supp 99 (W.D. Wash. 1976) 62









Notes 68







C. Responses to the "Litigation Explosion" 70







1. More Courts, More Judges 70









2. Doctrinal Decisions 70











Tidewater Oil Co. v. United States, 409 U.S.

151 (1972) 70











3. Screening or Summary Disposition Procedures 75











Jones v. Superintendent, Virginia State Farm,

465 F.2d 1091 (4th Cir. 1972) 75













Notes 80











4. Limiting Opinion Publication 80











Federal Judicial Center Model Rule for Publication

(1973) 80













Note 81













National Labor Relations Board v. Amalgamated

Clothing Workers of America
, 430 F.2d 966 (5th Cir.

1970) 81













Notes 84











5. Reducing Oral Arguments 85











United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit

Rule 34(a)--Oral Argument; Pre-Argument Review and

Summary Disposition of Appeals; Statement Regarding the

Need for Oral Argument 85













Notes 86











6. Delegating Tasks 86









a. To Judicial Clerks 86











Foreword--Law Clerks: For Better or Worse?,

J. Daniel Mahoney, 54 Brook. L. Rev. 321 (1988) 86











b. To Federal Court Magistrates and State Court Masters 88







Exercises 89





Selected Bibliography 90









Chapter Three--Judicial Opinions:

Decisionmaking and Opinion Drafting





A. Overview 93







Passion for Justice, Martha Minow & Elizabeth

V. Spelman, 10 Cardozo L. Rev. 37 (1988) 95









Notes 103







B. Collaborative or "Bureaucratic" Writing 103







Foreword--Law Clerks: For Better or Worse?, J.

Daniel Mahoney, 54 Brook. L. Rev. 321 (1988) 104









The Use and Abuse of Humanistic Theory in Law:

Reexamining the Assumptions of Interdisciplinary Legal

Scholarship
, Charles W. Collier, 41 Duke L.J. 191 (1991)

105







C. The Opinion Drafting Process 107







Foreword--Law Clerks: For Better or Worse?, J.

Daniel Mahoney, 54 Brook. L. Rev. 321 (1988) 107







D. Public Perception 110







Parker v. Connors Steel Company, 855 F.2d 1510

(11th Cir. 1988) 110









Notes 114







E. The Elements of An Effective Opinion 115







Note: Concerned Readers a/k/a Lawyers, Law Students,

and Legal Scholars, Plaintiffs/Petitioners vs. Judicial

Opinion Writers a/k/a Judges and Judicial Clerks,

Defendants/Respondents
, No. 90-00001, University of

Michigan Law School Journal of Law Reform Division, Argued

October 30, 1989, Decided May 1, 1990 115









Notes 124







F. The Elements of Less Effective Opinion 124







United States v. DiFrancesco, 449 U.S. 117 (1980)

124









Notes 136







G. Humor in Judicial Opinions 136







Denny v. Radar Industries, Inc., 184 N.W.2d 289

(Mich. Ct. App. 1971) 136









Note 136







H. Writing by Committee: Clerks and Central Staff 137







Note 138







Exercises 139





Selected Bibliography 139









Chapter Four--The Judge as Docket

Manager in an Adversarial System





A. Regulating Civil Discovery 144







1. Sample Document Request 144











Notes 146











2. Civil Discovery Reform in the 1990s 146









a. The Federal System 146











Rule 26. General Provisions Governing Discovery; Duty

of Disclosure 147













Notes 147











b. The State System 149











Arizona Revised Statutes, Rule 26. General Provisions

Governing Discovery; Rule 26.1 Prompt Disclosure of

Information 149













Notes









B. Rocket Docket: Management vs. Litigants' Rights 153







Martel v. County of Los Angeles, 21 F.3d 940 (9th

Cir. 1994) 153







C. Settlement Conferences 159







Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 16 159









Note 161







D. Arbitration 162







DDI Seamless Cylinder International, Inc. v. General

Fire Extinguisher Corporation
, 14 F.3d 1163 (7th Cir.

1994) 162









Notes 168







E. Summary Jury Trials 168







In re NLO, Inc., 5 F.3d 154 (6th Cir. 1993) 168









Notes 174







F. Technology in Docket Management 175







1. A State Court's Technology Plan 175











The Environment of the Idaho Courts in 2005 175











2. A Paperless Trial in Federal Court 178











United States v. Labovitz, No. CR

95-30022-MAP (D. Mass. July 24, 1996) 178











3. A CD-ROM Brief in Federal Court 180











Yukiyo, Ltd. v. Watanabe, 111 F.3d 883 (Fed.

Cir. 1997) 180













Notes 188









G. Managing the Lawyers 183







Judicial Ethics: The Less-Often Asked Questions,

Andrew L. Kaufman, 64 Wash. L. Rev. 851 (1989) 184









Notes 188







H. Managing Trials 189





Exercises 190





Selected Bibliography 191









Chapter Five--Judicial Qualifications,

Selection, and Training





A. Qualifications 196







1. Non-Attorney Judges 196









2. A Judicial Resume 197











Note 199













Page's Ohio Revised Code Annotated















_ 2301.01 Courts of common pleas 200

















_ 2301.02 Qualifications and term of judge,

jurisdiction 200

















_ 2503.01 Judges of supreme court 200















Notes 200









B. Selection and Election 201







Comment, Rethinking Judicial Elections, Kurt E.

Scheuerman, 72 Or. L. Rev. 459 (1993) 201









Notes 215







C. Appointment 216







Newman v. Voinovich, 986 F.2d 159 (6th Cir. 1993)

216









Notes 221







D. The Results of the Judicial Selection Processes 222







Demographic Portrait of the Federal Judiciary 222









Women Judges Currently Serving on State Courts of Last

Resort and Intermediate Appellate Courts 224









African-American Judges Currently Serving on State Courts

of Last Resort and Intermediate Appellate Courts 224









Notes 225







E. Education and Training 225





Exercises 227





Selected Bibliography 228









Chapter Six--Judicial Ethics





A. Roots of Regulating Judicial Conduct 232







ABA Model Code of Judicial Conduct 232







B. Recusal: A Reasonable Question of Impartiality 233







28 U.S.C. _ 4554. Disqualification of justice, judge, or

magistrate 233









United States v. Murphy, 768 F.2d 1518 (7th Cir.

1985) 234









Notes 244









In re Complainant as to the Conduct of The Honorable

Ronald D. Schenck
, 870 P.2d 185 (Or. 1994) 245









Notes 257







Exercises 257





Selected Bibliography 258









Chapter Seven--Jurisprudence: Legal

Philosophy in Action





A. Theories of Statutory Construction 262







Uniform Statute and Rule Construction Act (1993) 262









Commentary to Section 19 264









Exercises 266







B. Judicial Philosophy in Criminal Sentencing 266







Mistretta v. United States, 488 U.S. 361 (1989)

267









Note 275









The Sentencing Reform Act of 1984: A Practical

Appraisal
, Stanley A. Weigel, 36 UCLA L. Rev. 83 (1988)

275









Notes 288







Exercises 288





Selected Bibliography 290