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This anthology provides an introduction to the traditions, themes, and main arguments in the conflicts literature. A Conflict-of-Laws Anthology is systematic, comprehensive, and up-to-date. Over seventy selections present the work of leading conflicts scholars from Story and Beale to those writing today. The selections are carefully edited, systematically arranged by chapter and topic, and accompanied by Professor Shreve's meticulous commentary. The book also features numerous aids, including an extensive bibliography, an informative index, and a table of cases that will enable students to tie readings to conflicts course work.

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Authors / Contributors

Table of Contents


Note on Editing and Citation

Chapter One: An Overview-Themes Animating Conflict of Laws

Introductory note

Gene R. Shreve, Choice of Law and the Forgiving Constitution, 71 Ind.
L.J. 271 (1996).


Chapter Two: Historic Divisions-Multilateral and Unilateral Approaches
to Choice of Law in Europe

Introductory note

Friedrich K. Juenger, Choice of Law and Multistate Justice (Boston:
Nijhoff 1993)


Chapter Three: Lex Loci Delicti-The Dominance and Partial Decline of Multilateralism
in American Conflicts Law

Introductory note

A. Story, Beale, and the Original Restatement

Joseph Story, Commentaries on The Conflict of Law (Boston: Hilliard,
Gray & Co. 1834)

Kurt H. Nadelmann, Joseph Story's Contribution to American Conflicts
Law: A Comment, 5 Am. J. Legal Hist. 230 (1961)

Joseph H. Beale, History and Doctrines of the Conflict of Laws, in 3
A Treatise on the Conflict of Laws, 1967 app. (New York: Baker, Voorhis
& Co. 1935)

Herbert F. Goodrich, Yielding Place to New: Rest Versus Motion in The
Conflict of Laws (The Association of the Bar of the City of New York 1950)

American Law Institute, Restatement of the Law of Conflict of Laws (St.
Paul 1934)


B. Classical Theory Under Attack

Elliott E. Cheatham, American Theories of Conflict of Laws: Their Role
and Utility, 58 Harv. L. Rev. 361 (1945)

Hessell E. Yntema, The Hornbook Method and the Conflict of Laws, 37
Yale L.J. 468 (1928)

Walter W. Cook, The Logical and Legal Bases of the Conflict of Law,
33 Yale L.J. 457 (1924)

David F. Cavers, A Critique of the Choice of Law Problem, 47 Harv. L.
Rev. 173 (1933)


Chapter Four: Conflicts Revolution-The Watershed Case of Babcock v. Jackson

Introductory note

Symposium, Comments on Babcock v. Jackson, A Recent Development in Conflict
of Laws, 63 Colum. L. Rev. 1212 (1963)


Chapter Five: Interest Analysis-The Emergence of Unilateralism in Modern
American Conflicts Law

Introductory note

Brainerd Currie, Notes on Methods and Objectives in the Conflict of
Laws, 1959 Duke L.J. 171

William M. Richman, Diagramming Conflicts: A Graphic Understanding of
Interest Analysis, 43 Ohio St. L.J. 317 (1982)


Chapter Six: Interst Analysis on Trial

Introductory note

A. Critics

Harold G. Maier, Finding the Trees in Spite of theMetaphorist: The Problem
of State Interests in Choiceof Law, 56 Albany L. Rev. 753 (1993)

P. John Kozyris, Postscript: Interest Analysis Facing Its Critics-And,
Incidentally, What Should Be Done About Choice of Law for Products Liability?
46 Ohio St. L.J. 569 (1985)

Friedrich K. Juenger, Conflict of Laws: A Critique of Interest Analysis,
32 Am. J. Comp. L. 1 (1984)

Lea Brilmayer, Interest Analysis and the Myth of Legislative Intent,
78 Mich. L. Rev. 392 (1980)

Aaron D. Twerski, Neumeier v. Kuehner: Where are the Emperor's Clothes?,
1 Hofstra L. Rev. 104 (1973)


B. Defenders

Russell J. Weintraub, A Defense of Interest Analysis in the Conflict
of Laws and the Use of that Analysis in Products Liability, 46 Ohio St.
L.J. 493 (1985)

Robert A. Sedler, Reflections on Conflict-of-Laws Methodology, 32 Hastings
L.J. 1628 (1981)

David E. Seidelson, Resolving Choice-of-Law Problems Through Interest
Analysis in Person Injury Actions: A Suggested Order of Priority Among
Competing State Interests and Among Available Techniques for Weighing Those
Interests, 30 Duq. L. Rev. 869 (1992)

Louise Weinberg, On Departing From Forum Law, 35 Mercer L. Rev. 595

Bruce Posnak, Choice of Law: Interest Analysis and Its "New Critics,"
36 Am. J. Comp. L. 681 (1988)


Chapter Seven: Completing the Picture-American Conflicts Theory Apart From
Multilateralism and Unilateralism

Introductory note

A. Justified Expectations

Max Rheinstein, The Place of Wrong: A Study in the Method of Case Law,
19 Tulane L. Rev. 4 (1944)

Elliott E. Cheatham and Willis L.M. Reese, Choice of the Applicable
Law, 52 Colum. L. Rev. 959 (1952)

Aaron D. Twerski, Enlightened Territorialism and Professor Cavers-The
Pennsylvania Method, 9 Duq. L. Rev. 373 (1971)


B. Substantivism

Robert A. Leflar, Choice-Influencing Considerationsin Conflicts Law,
41 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 267 (1966)

Joseph W. Singer, Real Conflicts, 69 B.U. L. Rev. 1 (1989)

William F. Baxter, Choice of Law and the Federal System, 16 Stan. L.
Rev. 1 (1963)

Arthur T. von Mehren, Special Substantive Rules for Multistate Problems:
Their Role and Significance in Contemporary Choice of Law Methodology,
88 Harv. L. Rev. 347 (1974)

Patrick J. Borchers, Conflicts Pragmatism, 56 Albany L. Rev. 883 (1993)


Chapter Eight: Prevailing Choice-of-Law Approaches

Introductory note

A. The Restatement (Second)

American Law Institute, Restatement of the Law (Second) Conflict of
Laws (St. Paul 1971)

Michael S. Finch, Choice-of-Law Problems in Florida Courts: A Retrospective
on the Restatement (Second), 24 Stetson L. Rev. 653 (1995)

Symeon C. Symeonides, Exception Clauses in American Conflicts Law, 42
Am. J. of Comp. L. 813 (1994)


B. Leflar's Choice-Influencing Considerations

Robert A. Leflar, Choice-Influencing Considerations in Conflicts Law,
41 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 267 (1966)

Robert A. Leflar, Conflicts Law: More on Choice-lnfluencing Considerations,
54 Cal. L. Rev. 1584 (1966)

James R. Pielemeier, Some Hope for Choice of Law in Minnesota, 18 Hamline
L. Rev. 8 (1994)


C. Surveying Judicial Preferences

Symeon C. Symeonides, Choice of Law in the American Courts in 1995:
A Year in Review, 44 Am. J. of Comp. L. 181 (1996)


Chapter Nine: Consensus or Chaos in American Conflicts Law?

Introductory note

A. The Eclecticism Debate

Robert A. Leflar, Choice of Law: A Well-Watered Plateau,41 Law &
Contemp. Probs. 10 (1977)

James E. Westbrook, A Survey and Evaluation of Competing Choice-of-Law
Methodologies: The Case for Eclecticism, 40 Mo. L. Rev. 407 (1975)

William A. Reppy, Eclecticism in Choice of Law: Hybrid Method or Mishmash?,
34 Mercer L. Rev. 645 (1982)

Joseph W. Singer, A Pragmatic Guide to Conflicts, 70 B.U. L. Rev. 731


B. Rules or Approach?

Maurice Rosenberg, The Comeback of Choice of Law Rules, 81 Colum. L.
Rev. 946 (1981)

Robert A. Sedler, Rules of Choice of Law Versus Choice-of-Law Rules:
Judicial Method in Conflicts Torts Cases, 44 Tenn. L. Rev. 975 (1977)

Peter Hay and Robert B. Ellis, Bridging the Gap Between Rules and Approaches
in Tort Choice of Law in the United States: A Survey of Current Case Law,
27 Int'l Lawyer 369 (1993)


C. Conflicts Theory at the Crossroads

Larry Kramer, Rethinking Choice of Law, 90 Colum. L. Rev. 277 (1990)

Gary J. Simson, Plotting the Next "Revolution" in Choice of
Law: A Proposed Approach, 24 Cornell Int'l L.J. 279 (1991)

Arthur T. von Mehren, Choice of Law and the Problem of Justice, 41 Law
& Contemp. Probs. 27 (1977)

Joseph W. Singer, Real Conflicts, 69 B.U. L. Rev. 1 (1989)

Perry Dane, Vested Rights, "Vestedness," and Choice of Law,
96 Yale L.J. 1191 (1987)

Lea Brilmayer, Rights, Fairness, and Choice of Law, 98 Yale L.J. 1277


D. Enduring Problems of Coherence and Justice in Choice of Law

Michael H. Gottesman, Draining the Dismal Swamp: The Case for Federal
Choice of Law Statutes, 80 Geo. L.J. 1 (1991)

Stewart E. Sterk, The Marginal Relevance of Choice of Law Theory, 142
U. Pa. L. Rev. 949 (1994)

James E. Westbrook, A Survey and Evaluation of Competing Choice-of-Law
Methodologies: The Case for Eclecticism, 40 Mo. L. Rev. 407 (1975)

Arthur T. von Mehren, Choice of Law and the Problem of Justice, 41 Law
& Contemp. Probs. 27 (1977)


Chapter Ten: Choice of Law and the Constitution

Introductory note 323

A. The Constitutional Concern of Conflicts Localism

Gene R. Shreve, Choice of Law and the Forgiving Constitution, 71 Ind.
L.J. 271 (1996)


B. Full Faith and Credit and Due Process-TraditionalSources for Regulating
Choice of Law

Robert H. Jackson, Full Faith and Credit-The Lawyer's Clause of the
Constitution, 45 Colum. L. Rev. 1 (1945)

Louise Weinberg, Choice of Law and Minimal Scrutiny, 49 U. Chi. L. Rev.
440 (1982)

Robert A. Sedler, Constitutional Limitations on Choice of Law: The Perspective
of Constitutional Generalism, 10 Hofstra L. Rev. 59 (1981)

Willis L.M. Reese, The Hague Case: An Opportunity Lost, 10 Hofstra L.
Rev. 195 (1981)

Linda J. Silberman, Can the State of Minnesota Bind the Nation? Federal
Choice of Law Constraints After Allstate Insurance Co. v. Hague, 10 Hofstra
L. Rev. 103 (1983)


C. Regulatory Possibilities Under Other Parts of the Constitution

Douglas Laycock, Equal Citizens of Equal and Territorial States, The
Constitutional Foundations of Choice of Law, 92 Colum. L. Rev. 249 (1992)

John H. Ely, Choice of Law and the State's Interest in Protecting Its
Own, 23 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 173 (1981)

Harold W. Horowitz, The Commerce Clause as a Limitation on State Choice
of Law Doctrine, 84 Harv. L. Rev. 806 (1971)

Gerald L. Neuman, Territorial Discrimination, Equal Protection, and
Self-Determination, 135 U. Pa. L. Rev. 261 (1987)


D. Constitutional Intersections of Choice of Law andPersonal Jurisdiction

Gene R. Shreve, Interest Analysis as Constitutional Law, 48 Ohio St.
L.J. 51 (1987)

Courtland H. Peterson, Proposals of Marriage Between Jurisdiction and
Choice of Law, 14 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 869 (1981)

Peter Hay, Judicial Jurisdiction and Choice of Law: Constitutional Limitations,
59 U. Colo. L. Rev. 9 (1988)

James A. Martin, Personal Jurisdiction and Choice of Law, 78 Mich. L.
Rev. 872 (1980)

Friedrich K. Juenger, Supreme Court Intervention in Jurisdiction and
Choice of Law: A Dismal Prospect, 14 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 907 (1981)


Chapter Eleven: A Glimpse at the Literature on Additional Conflicts Topics

Introductory note

A. Conflicts Writing in Substantive Areas

1. Torts

2. Contracts

3. Insurance and Products Liability

4. Property

5. Trusts and Estates

6. Family Law

7. Business Law

B. Assorted Rules and Conceptual Devices for Conflicts Cases

1. Domicile

2. Renvoi

3. Depecage

4. Characterization

5. Public Policy

6. Substance-Procedure Distinctions in Choice of Law

7. Pleading and Proving Foreign Law

C. Codifying Conflicts Law

D. Intersections of Conflicts Law with Other Forms of Procedure

1. Personal Jurisdiction

2. Intersystem Preclusion

3. Complex Litigation

E. Choice of Law in the Federal System

1. Conflicts Law and the Erie Doctrine

2. Federal Common Law for Conflicts?

F. International Perspectives

1. Extraterritorial Application of American Law

2. Choice of Law Abroad

Chapter Twelve: Bibliography

Table of Cases


(a) Africa

(b) Asia and Australia

(c) Canada

(d) England

(e) Europe

(f) Latin America

(g) Other Studies


Choice-of-law discussions in the book touch upon the topics listed below.
References are to chapter, chapter section, or page.

African conflicts law p. 399

approach versus rule chi. 9 B

Asian conflicts law p. 399

Australian conflicts law p. 399

Beale's approach pp. 33-38, 40-41, 54-55

business law pp. 387-388

Canadian conflicts law p. 399

characterization pp. 41-42; 390

coherence chi. 9 D

codification p. 393

comity pp. 28-29, 40, 296

comparative impairment pp. 128, 261-263

complex litigation pp. 395-396

Constitutional restraints

due process ch. 10 B

commerce clause ch. 10 C

equal protection ch. 10 C

full faith and credit ch. 10 B

privileges and immunities ch. 10 C

contracts pp. 385-386

Currie's governmental interest analysis ch. 5

depecage pp. 389-390

domicile p. 38g

eclecticism ch. 9 A

Ehrenzweig's approach pp. 54-55

English conflicts law p. 399

Erie Doctrine p. 397

European conflicts law and theory

history ch. 2

contemporary developments p. 400

expectations of the parties ch. 7 A

extraterritorial application of U.S. law p. 399

false conflicts pp. 75-82

family law p. 387

federal conflicts law

common law pp. 397-398

statutory p. 333

federal versus unitary forms of government pp. 126-127

insurance p. 386

interest analysis

explained ch 5

criticized ch. 6 A

defended ch. 6B

judgments p. 395

justice ch. 9 D

Latin American conflicts law p. 400

Leflar's choice-influencing considerations ch. 8 B

lex fori pp. 54-55

lex loci delicti ch. 3 A

local favoritism ch. 10 A

multilateralism pp. 1-3

personal jurisdiction ch. 10 D

pleading and proving foreign law p. 391

product liability p. 386

property pp. 386-387

public policy pp. 41-42, 390

renvoi pp. 41-42, 389

realist criticism pp. 54-55


the original conflicts Restatement pp. 3

the Restatement (Second) ch. 8 A

rule versus approach ch. 9 B

Story's approach pp. 27-33, 40

substance versus procedure pp. 41-42, 390-391

substantivism ch. 7 B

torts p. 385

treaties p. 333

trends ch. 8 C

true conflicts pp. 75-82

trusts and estates p. 387

unilateralism pp. 1, 3-4

unprovided-for case pp. 75-82