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Understanding Remedies, Third Edition

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This comprehensive Understanding treatise provides an introduction to the basic legal rules and principles that constitute the law of remedies as applied by United States courts. The chapters are organized so that the materials follow the customary approach of teaching remedies:

(1)   General principles applicable to damages, injunctions, and restitution;
(2)   Remedy defenses;
(3)   Applications, e.g., bodily injury remedies, breach of contract remedies;
(4)   Special problems, e.g., punitive damages, attorneys' fees.

The materials are comprehensive and respect the nuance and subtlety of the subject. Understanding Remedies presents the richness of the topic to students who wish to gain both a fundamental appreciation of the subject and an insight into the myriad ways remedies influence the shape and dimension of modern American law.

Professors and adjunct professors may request complimentary examination copies of LexisNexis law school publications to consider for class adoption or recommendation. Please identify the book(s) you wish to receive, provide your institutional contact information, and submit your request here.

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Table of Contents

Page

Chapter 1 UNDERSTANDING REMEDIES

1 BASIC REMEDIAL GOALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2 TYPES OF REMEDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

4 PUBLIC POLICY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

5 RESERVED

Chapter 2 GENERAL PRINCIPLES CONCERNING COMPENSATORY DAMAGES

6 THE PURPOSE OF COMPENSATORY DAMAGES . . . 25

7 VALUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

8 MEASURING COMPENSATORY DAMAGES . . . . . . . 58

9 FUTURE LOSSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

10 LOSS CAUSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

11 ECONOMIC LOSS RULE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

12 NON-ECONOMIC DAMAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

16 PREJUDGMENT INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

18-19 RESERVED

Chapter 3 GENERAL PRINCIPLES CONCERNING EQUITABLE REMEDIES

20 THE HISTORICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LAW AND EQUITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

21 ADEQUACY OF THE REMEDY AT LAW/ IRREPARABLE INJURY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

22 EQUITY ACTS IN PERSONAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

23 EQUITABLE DISCRETION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

24 BURDEN ON THE COURT/SUPERVISION . . . . . . . . 224

25 NATURE OF RIGHTS PROTECTED . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

26 STATUTORY EQUITABLE REMEDIES . . . . . . . . . . 230

27 INJUNCTION OF CRIMINAL ACTIVITY . . . . . . . . . 236

28 INJUNCTIONS AND PRIOR RESTRAINTS . . . . . . . . 238

29 RESERVED

Chapter 4 INJUNCTIONS

30 RIPENESS, MOOTNESS, AND STANDING . . . . . . . . 244

31 TEMPORARY INJUNCTIVE RELIEF . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

32 APPELLATE REVIEW OF ORDERS GRANTING OR DENYING TEMPORARY RELIEF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

33 PERMANENT INJUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292

34 SPECIFICITY OF INJUNCTIVE RELIEF . . . . . . . . . 304

35 PERSONS BOUND BY INJUNCTIVE RELIEF . . . . . . 310

37-39 RESERVED

Chapter 5 GENERAL PRINCIPLES GOVERNING RESTITUTION

40 RESTITUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329

41 RESTITUTION FOR WRONGDOING . . . . . . . . . . . . 332

42 RESTITUTION FOR UNJUST ENRICHMENT . . . . . . 343

43 NATURE OF UNJUST ENRICHMENT . . . . . . . . . . . 344

44 QUASI CONTRACT AND UNJUST ENRICHMENT . . . 353

45 VALUATION OF THE BENEFIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

46 APPORTIONMENT OF BENEFIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

47 RESTITUTIONARY DAMAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371

48-49 RESERVED

Chapter 6 RESTITUTIONARY ACTIONS

50 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

51 DISGORGEMENT ORDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

52 INDEMNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381

53 SUBROGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

54 CONSTRUCTIVE TRUST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396

55 EQUITABLE ACCOUNTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414

56 EQUITABLE LIEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416

57 REPLEVIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418

58 EJECTMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424

59 TRACING PRINCIPLES FOR CONSTRUCTIVE TRUSTS, EQUITABLE LIENS AND EQUITABLE ACCOUNTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426

Chapter 7 REMEDY DEFENSES

60 COMPARED WITH LIABILITY DEFENSES . . . . . . . . 438

61 LACHES AND STATUTES OF LIMITATION . . . . . . . 440

62 UNCLEAN HANDS AND “IN PARI DELICTO” . . . . . . 461

63 DURESS AND UNCONSCIONABILITY . . . . . . . . . . 472

64 ESTOPPEL, WAIVER, AND ELECTION . . . . . . . . . . 479

65 FRAUD AND ILLEGALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486

66 CHANGE IN POSITION AND HARDSHIP . . . . . . . . . 489

67 ASSERTION OF DEFENSES AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491

68-69 RESERVED

Chapter 8 REMEDIES FOR BODILY INJURIES

70 BODILY INJURY REMEDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498

71 LOST INCOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499

72 MEDICAL EXPENSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511

73 PAIN AND SUFFERING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519

74 LOSS OF CONSORTIUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531

75 REMEDIES WHEN THE PLAINTIFF DIES . . . . . . . . 537

76 CONCEPTION-RELATED CLAIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552

77-79 RESERVED

Chapter 9 REMEDIES FOR INJURY TO PERSONAL PROPERTY

80 PHYSICAL DAMAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559

81 VALUE TO OWNER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566

82 PETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569

83 DAMAGES FOR LOSS OR INTERFERENCE WITH
POSSESSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572

84 RETURN OF POSSESSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582

85 UNJUST ENRICHMENT AND RESTITUTION . . . . . . 587

86 GOOD FAITH IMPROVERS OF PERSONAL PROPERTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589

87-89 RESERVED

Chapter 10 REMEDIES FOR INJURY TO REAL PROPERTY

90 PHYSICAL DAMAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
91 NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602

91.1 Environmental Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602

91.2 Stigma Damages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603

91.3 Damage to Trees and Shrubs . . . . . . . . . . . . 605

92 EJECTMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607

93 TRESPASS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 608

94 NUISANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617

95 WASTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627

96 GOOD FAITH IMPROVERS OF REAL PROPERTY . . . 631

97-99 RESERVED

Chapter 11 REMEDIES FOR INJURY TO RELATIONSHIPS

100 ECONOMIC RELATIONSHIPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637

101 SOCIAL AND PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIPS . . . . 644

102 PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 650

103 HEART BALM STATUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658

104 WRONGFUL ADOPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664

Chapter 12 REMEDIES FOR DEFAMATION

105 PRESUMED DAMAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665

106 REPUTATIONAL INJURY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667

107 NON-REPUTATIONAL DAMAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673

108 ENJOINING A LIBEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675

109 DISPARAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675

Chapter 13 REMEDIES FOR INJURY TO PERSONAL RIGHTS


110 PRIVACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 679

111 CIVIL RIGHTS/CONSTITUTIONAL TORTS . . . . . . . . 685

112 LITIGATION TORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 694

113 BREACH OF FIDUCIARY DUTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 698

114-119 RESERVED

Chapter 14 FRAUD AND MISREPRESENTATION

120 NATURE OF FRAUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705

121 ELEMENTS OF FRAUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713

122 DAMAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 721

123 INJUNCTIVE RELIEF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 727

124 RESTITUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 728

125 PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 730

126-129 RESERVED

Chapter 15 RESCISSION (DISAFFIRMANCE) OF BARGAIN

130 NATURE OF RESCISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733

131 FORMS OF RESCISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735

132 DEMAND FOR RESCISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 738

133 ELECTION OF REMEDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740

134 RESTORATION OF THE STATUS QUO . . . . . . . . . . 747

135 SCOPE OF REMEDY OF RESCISSION . . . . . . . . . . 751

136 GROUNDS FOR RESCISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 754

137-139 RESERVED

Chapter 16 BREACH OF CONTRACT REMEDIES - AFFIRMANCE OF BARGAIN OR TRANSACTION

140 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF CONTRACT
REMEDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757

141 BAD FAITH BREACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760

142 DISTRESS DAMAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765

143-149 RESERVED

Chapter 17 BREACH OF EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT

150 EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 769

151 EMPLOYEE’S DAMAGES AGAINST EMPLOYER . . . . 773

152 EMPLOYEE REINSTATEMENT TO POSITION . . . . . 778

153 EMPLOYER’S DAMAGES AGAINST EMPLOYEE . . . . 783

154 EMPLOYER’S INJUNCTION AGAINST EMPLOYEE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 786

155 EMPLOYER’S REMEDIES FOR EMPLOYEE’S BREACH OF DUTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 791

156-159 RESERVED

Chapter 18 BREACH OF CONSTRUCTION CONTRACT

160 CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 797

161 OWNER"S REMEDIES FOR CONTRACTOR"S
BREACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800

162 CONTRACTOR’S REMEDIES FOR OWNER"S
BREACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 806

163 LOSING CONTRACTS AND RESTITUTION . . . . . . . 813

164 RESERVED

Chapter 19 BREACH OF CONTRACT TO SELL REAL PROPERTY

165 BREACH OF CONTRACT TO SELL REAL
PROPERTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 817

166 BUYER"S REMEDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 817

167 SELLER"S REMEDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823

168 INSTALLMENT LAND SALE CONTRACTS . . . . . . . . 827

169 RESERVED

Chapter 20 SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE

170 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 831

171 CERTAINTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 833

172 ABILITY TO PERFORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 835

173 MUTUALITY OF REMEDY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 836

174 FAIRNESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 839

175 FLEXIBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 842

176 ABATEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 842

177 DAMAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 845

178-179 RESERVED

Chapter 21 AGREED REMEDIES

180 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 849

181 LIQUIDATED DAMAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 850

182 LIQUIDATED DAMAGES: COMPENSABLE DAMAGE REQUIREMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 858

183 LIQUIDATED DAMAGES AS EXCLUSIVE OR NONEXCLUSIVE REMEDY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859

184 LIQUIDATED DAMAGES AS OVERCOMPENSATORY OR UNDERCOMPENSATORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 863

185 SPECIFYING INJUNCTIVE RELIEF BY CONTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 864

186 NEGATING REMEDIES BY CONTRACT . . . . . . . . . 866

187-189 RESERVED

Chapter 22 CONTEMPT

190 NATURE OF CONTEMPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 879

191 TYPES OF CONTEMPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 881

192 CLASSIFICATION OF CONTEMPT AS CRIMINAL OR CIVIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 883

193 ELEMENTS OF CIVIL CONTEMPT . . . . . . . . . . . . 888

194 COERCIVE CIVIL CONTEMPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 891

195 COMPENSATORY CONTEMPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 903

196 ATTORNEY"S FEES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 905

197 DEFENSES TO CONTEMPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 906

198 COLLATERAL BAR RULE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 907

199 ATTEMPTED CONTEMPTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 912

Chapter 23 PUNITIVE DAMAGES

200 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 918

201 PURPOSE OF PUNITIVE DAMAGES . . . . . . . . . . . 919

202 SCOPE OF PUNITIVE DAMAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 923

203 ACTUAL INJURY REQUIREMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . 934

204 WEALTH OF THE DEFENDANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 936

205 DUE PROCESS LIMITATIONS ON AMOUNT OF AWARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 941

206 STANDARD OF REVIEW OF AWARD . . . . . . . . . . . 954

207 MULTIPLE DAMAGES AWARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 956

208 DISCRETION AS TO THE SCOPE AND THE SIZE OF AWARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 960

209 TORT REFORM—PUNITIVE DAMAGES . . . . . . . . . . 961

Chapter 24 ATTORNEY’S FEES

210 ATTORNEY’S FEES—THE 'AMERICAN RULE' . . . . . 963

211 EXCEPTIONS TO THE 'AMERICAN RULE' . . . . . . . 964

212 PREVAILING PARTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 976

213 AWARD OF FEES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 983

214 STANDING TO COLLECT FEES AWARD . . . . . . . . . 999

Table of Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TC-1

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1