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Criminal Law: Cases and Materials, Third Edition (2009)

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Table of Contents

Table of Cases xxi




Preface to the First Edition xxvii

Preface to the 2000 Edition xxix

CHAPTER 1. PUNISHMENT 1

State v. Chaney, 477 P.2d 441 (Alaska 1970) 2

Leuch v. State, 633 P.2d 1006 (Alaska 1981) 7

Problem: Regina v. Jones, 115 Can. Crim. Cas. Ann. 273 (1956) 14

CHAPTER 2. HOMICIDE 15

A. Premeditation 15

State v. Ollens, 733 P.2d 984 (Wash. 1987) 16

State v. Johnson, 344 S.E.2d 775 (N.C 1986) 21

B. Heat of Passion 27

Girouard v. State, 583 A.2d 718 (Md. 1989) 27

Freddo v. State, 155 S.W. 170 (Tenn. 1913) 31

State v. Thornton, 730 S.W.2d 309 (Tenn. 1987) 34

People v. Berry, 556 P.2d 777 (Cal. 1976) 42

People v. Casassa, 404 N.E.2d 1310 (N.Y. 1980) 45

Problem: State v. Forrest, 362 S.E.2d 252 (N.C. 1987) 51

C. Assisted Suicide 53

People v. Kevorkian, 527 N.W.2d 714 (Mich. 1994) 53

Problem: In re Joseph G., 667 P.2d 1176 (Cal. 1983) 65

D. Unintentional Killings 67

State v. Salz, 627 A.2d 862 (Conn. 1993) 67

Commonwealth v. Welansky, 55 N.E.2d 902 (Mass. 1944) 75

Porter v. State, 88 So. 2d 924 (Fla. 1956) 77

State v. Williams, 484 P.2d 1167 (Wash. App. 1971) 80

E. Depraved Heart Murder 84

Essex v. Commonwealth, 322 S.E.2d 216 (Va. 1984) 84

Pears v. State, 672 P.2d 903 (Alaska App. 1983) 89

Northington v. State, 413 So. 2d 1169 (Ala. App. 1981) 95

Commonwealth v. Malone, 47 A.2d 445 (Pa. 1946) 97

Problem: Berry v. Superior Court, 256 Cal. Rptr. 344 (1989) 99

F. Felony-Murder 102

People v. Gladman, 359 N.E.2d 420 (N.Y. 1976) 102

People v. Phillips, 414 P.2d 353 (Cal. 1966) 106

People v. Sears, 465 P.2d 847 (Cal. 1970) 111

Problem: State v. Jones, 516 S.E.2d 405 (N.C. App. 1999) 116

People v. Dekens, 695 N.E.2d 474 (Ill. 1998) 119

People v. Aaron, 299 N.W.2d 304 (Mich. 1979) 126

State v. Ervin, 577 A.2d 1273 (N.J. Super. A.D. 1990) 128

CHAPTER 3. CAUSATION 133

A. Intentional Killings 133

People v. Brackett, 510 N.E.2d 877 (Ill. 1987) 133

Problem 138

B. Unintentional Killings 140

People v. Russell, 693 N.E.2d 193 (N.Y. 1998) 140

State v. McFadden, 320 N.W.2d 608 (Iowa 1982) 142

State v. Caibaiosai, 363 N.W.2d 574 (Wis. 1985) 149

Problem 154

CHAPTER 4. ASSAULT AND KIDNAPPING 155

A. Assault 155

Harrod v. State, 499 A.2d 959 (Md. App. 1985) 155

B. Kidnapping 160

State v. Beatty, 495 S.E.2d 367 (N.C. 1998) 160

CHAPTER 5. RAPE 165

A. The Traditional View 165

State v. Rusk, 424 A.2d 720 (Md. 1981) 165

B. Legislative Reform 176

Commonwealth v. Berkowitz, 641 A.2d 1161 (Pa. 1994) 176

State of New Jersey in the Interest of M.T.S., 609 A.2d 1266 (N.J. 1992) 180

C. Undue Influence 192

State v. Thompson, 792 P.2d 1103 (Mont. 1990) 192

D. Fraud 196

Boro v. Superior Court, 210 Cal. Rptr. 122 (Cal. App. 1985) 196

E. Juridical Limitations 201

People v. Liberta, 474 N.E.2d 567 (N.Y. 1984) 201

Problem 205

Problem 206

CHAPTER 6. SELF-DEFENSE 207

A. In General 207

State v. Schroeder, 261 N.W.2d 759 (Neb. 1978) 207

State v. Norman, 378 S.E.2d 8 (N.C. 1989) 211

B. Retreat Rule 224

People v. Russell, 693 N.E.2d 193 (N.Y. 1998) 224

Weiand v. State, 24 Fla. L. Weekly S124 (1999) 224

C. Defense of Others 234

People v. Young, 183 N.E.2d 319 (N.Y. 1962) 234

D. Imperfect Self-Defense 237

Shuck v. State, 349 A.2d 378 (Md. App. 1975) 237

E. Resisting Arrest 240

People v. Curtis, 450 P.2d 33 (Cal. 1962) 240

F. Crime Prevention 244

Tennessee v. Garner, 471 U.S. 1 (1985) 244

State v. Clothier, 753 P.2d 1267 (Kan. 1988) 253

United States v. Hillsman, 522 F.2d 454 (7th Cir. 1975) 256

Problem: People v. Goetz, 497 N.E.2d 41 (N.Y. 1986) 258

CHAPTER 7. THEFT 261

A. Larceny 261

Topolewski v. State, 109 N.W. 1037 (Wis. 1906) 261

United States v. Pruitt, 446 F.2d 513 (6th Cir. 1971) 264

United States v. Rogers, 289 F.2d 433 (4th Cir. 1961) 265

Blackburn v. Commonwealth, 89 S.W. 160 (Ky. 1905) 267

People v. Butler, 421 P.2d 703 (Cal. 1967) 269

B. Embezzlement 272

People v. Riggins, 132 N.E.2d 519 (Ill. 1956) 272

Commonwealth v. Mitchneck, 198 A. 463 (Pa. Super. Ct. 1938) 275

C. False Pretenses 277

People v. Ashley, 267 P.2d 271 (Cal. 1954) 277

Nelson v. United States, 227 F.2d 21 (D.C. Cir. 1955) 281

D. Receiving Stolen Property 285

Commonwealth v. Baker, 175 A. 438 (Pa. Super. Ct. 1934) 285

E. Robbery 287

People v. Patton, 389 N.E.2d 1174 (Ill. 1979) 287

People v. Baskerville, 457 N.E.2d 752 (N.Y. 1983) 289

F. Extortion 292

State v. Harrington, 260 A.2d 692 (Vt. 1970) 292

G. Burglary 297

People v. Davis, 958 P.2d 1083 (Cal. 1998) 297

CHAPTER 8. MENS REA 311

A. In General 311

Morissette v. United States, 342 U.S. 246 (1952) 311

Regina v. Pembliton, 12 Cox Crim. Cas. 607 (Cr. App. 1874) 318

United States v. Jewell, 532 F.2d 697 (9th Cir. 1976) 320

B. Liability Without Fault 326

Morissette v. United States, 342 U.S. 246 (1952) 326

State v. Campbell, 691 N.E.2d 711 (Ohio App. 2d Dist. 1997) 328

Problem: United States v. Park, 421 U.S. 658 (1975) 334

State v. Guminga, 395 N.W.2d 344 (Minn. 1986) 337

Garnett v. State, 632 A.2d 797 (Md. 1993) 341

C. Mistake of Fact 357

D.P.P. v. Morgan, 2 All E.R. 365 (1975) 357

United States v. Short, 4 U.S.M.C.A. 437 (1954) 360

D. Mistake of Law 364

People v. Marrero, 507 N.E.2d 1068 (N.Y. 1987) 364

Lambert v. California, 355 U.S. 225 (1957) 374

E. Mistake of Law and Willfulness: A Lesson in Statutory Interpretation 378

Cheek v. United States, 498 U.S. 192 (1991) 378

Ratzlaf v. United States, 510 U.S. 135 (1994) 386

Bryan v. United States, 524 U.S. 184 (1998) 394

CHAPTER 9. ACTUS REUS 403

A. In General 403

Robinson v. California, 370 U.S. 660 (1962) 404

Powell v. Texas, 392 U.S. 514 (1968) 405

State v. Baker, 571 P.2d 65 (Kan. App. 1977) 409

State v. Hinkle, 489 S.E.2d 257 (W. Va. 1996) 413

Problem 419

People v. Decina, 138 N.E.2d 799 (N.Y. 1956) 420

B. Failure to Act 424

Jones v. United States, 308 F.2d 307 (D.C. Cir. 1962) 424

Davis v. Commonwealth, 335 S.E.2d 375 (Va. 1985) 427

Commonwealth v. Cali, 141 N.E. 510 (Mass. 1923) 429

Problem 430

CHAPTER 10. INTOXICATION 433

State v. Coates, 735 P.2d 64 (Wash. 1987) 433

State v. Cameron, 514 A.2d 1302 (N.J. 1986) 437

People v. Register, 457 N.E.2d 704 (N.Y. 1983) 443

Montana v. Egelhoff, 518 U.S. 37 (1996) 448

CHAPTER 11. INFANCY 463

J.F.B. v. State, 729 So. 2d 355 (Ala. Crim. App. 1998) 463

Maddox v. State, 931 S.W.2d 438 (Ark. 1996) 465

Butler v. State, 922 S.W.2d 685 (Ark. 1996) 468

Commonwealth v. Kocher, 602 A.2d 1308 (Pa. 1992) 470

CHAPTER 12. DURESS AND NECESSITY 477

A. Duress 477

People v. Carradine, 287 N.E.2d 670 (Ill. 1972) 477

State v. Toscano, 378 A.2d 755 (N.J. 1977) 479

State v. Tuttle, 730 P.2d 630 (Utah 1986) 486

Problem: United States v. Contento-Pachon, 723 F.2d 691 (9th Cir. 1984) 489

B. Necessity 491

People v. Archer, 537 N.Y.S.2d 726 (City Ct. Rochester 1988) 491

Gerlach v. State, 699 P.2d 358 (Alaska App. 1985) 497

State v. Tate, 505 A.2d 941 (N.J. 1986) 500

People v. Blake, 522 N.E.2d 822 (Ill. App. 1988) 504

Problem: Regina v. Dudley and Stephens, 15 Cox Crim. Cas. 624 (Q.B. 1884) 507

CHAPTER 13. ENTRAPMENT 509

Sherman v. United States, 356 U.S. 369 (1958) 509

Jacobson v. United States, 503 U.S. 540 (1992) 515

State v. Powell, 726 P.2d 266 (Haw. 1986) 525

United States v. Gamble, 737 F.2d 853 (10th Cir. 1984) 527

CHAPTER 14. INSANITY 533

United States v. Lyons, 731 F.2d 243, 739 F.2d 994 (5th Cir. 1984) 534

State v. Cameron, 674 P.2d 650 (Wash. 1983) 539

Problem: State v. Jones, 920 P.2d 225 (Wash. App. Div. 3 1996) 545

State v. Herrera, 895 P.2d 359 (Utah 1995) 545

Problem: People v. Wetmore, 583 P.2d 1308 (Cal. 1978) 567

Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399 (1986) 568

Problem 572

CHAPTER 15. CAPITAL PUNISHMENT 573

Godfrey v. Georgia, 446 U.S. 420 (1980) 574

Payne v. Tennessee, 501 U.S. 808 (1991) 577

Problem: Sumner v. Shuman, 483 U.S. 66 (1987) 599

Problem: California v. Brown, 479 U.S. 538 (1987) 600

Problem 600

CHAPTER 16. BURDEN OF PROOF AND PRESUMPTIONS 601

A. Burden of Proof 601

In re Winship, 397 U.S. 358 (1970) 601

Victor v. Nebraska, 511 U.S. 1 (1994) 604

B. Shifting the Burden 621

Patterson v. New York, 432 U.S. 197 (1977) 621

Martin v. Ohio, 480 U.S. 228 (1987) 628

C. Presumptions 633

Sandstrom v. Montana, 442 U.S. 510 (1979) 633

Montana v. Egelhoff, 518 U.S. 37 (1996) 635

CHAPTER 17. ATTEMPT 639

A. Mens Rea 639

Smallwood v. State, 680 A.2d 512 (Md. 1996) 640

People v. Thomas, 729 P.2d 972 (Colo. 1986) 644

State v. Stewart, 420 N.W.2d 44 (Wis. 1988) 649

B. Actus Reus 652

People v. Rizzo, 158 N.E. 888 (N.Y. 1927) 652

McQuirter v. State, 63 So. 2d 388 (Ala. App. 1953) 654

State v. Stewart, 420 N.W.2d 44 (Wis. 1988) 657

United States v. Still, 850 F.2d 607 (9th Cir. 1988) 660

State v. Davis, 6 S.W.2d 609 (Mo. 1928) 662

C. Abandonment 667

State v. Gartlan, 512 S.E.2d 74 (N.C. App. 1999) 667

People v. Johnson, 750 P.2d 72 (Colo. App. 1987) 669

Problem: Wormsley v. United States, 526 A.2d 1373 (D.C. App. 1987) 670

D. Impossibility 673

Booth v. State, 398 P.2d 863 (Okla. Ct. App. 1964) 673

Problem 680

CHAPTER 18. COMPLICITY 681

A. Actus Reus 681

Bailey v. United States, 416 F.2d 1110 (D.C. Cir. 1969) 681

B. Mens Rea (Intentional Crimes) 687

People v. Beeman, 674 P.2d 1318 (Cal. 1984) 687

United States v. Fountain, 768 F.2d 790 (7th Cir. 1985) 693

People v. Kessler, 315 N.E.2d 29 (Ill. 1974) 696

C. Mens Rea (Unintentional Crimes) 702

State v. McVay, 132 A. 439 (R.I. 1926) 702

People v. Marshall, 106 N.W.2d 842 (Mich. 1961) 704

D. Relationship to Principal's Liability 706

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